Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Lesson 33: Deck General Safety - Environmental

Crew Drills

Uninspected vessel operators should be familiar and conduct regular safety training to ensure that all passengers and crew members are safe while underway.
Every deckhand on an uninspected passenger vessel should be qualified as to sight, hearing and physical condition to perform the deckhand’s duties and physically able to perform all duties associated with the protection and evacuation of passengers during emergency situations.
Every UPV operator and deckhand should be familiar with the following matters relating to emergency conditions:

 Man Overboard
1. Location and use of lifesaving equipment.
2. The vessel’s maneuvering characteristics.
3. Emergency communication skills.
4. Proper recovery procedures.
5. Emergency operator - crew arrangements and duties.

 Fire
1. Fire detection and alarm systems – procedures.
2. Classes of fire and fire fighting procedures for each class of fire.
3. Location and operation of electrical power, vents, and fuel shut-offs.
4. Location and operation of water tight doors, hatches, etc.
5. Mustering of passengers.
6. Emergency operator and crew arrangements and duties.

 Abandon Ship
1. Location, launching, and operation of survival craft and equipments (including liferafts, buoy apparatus, and
and PFDs).
2. Proper method of abandoning ship, mustering and disembarking of passengers.
3. Emergency communication skills.
4. Emergency operator - crew arrangement and duties

 Foul Weather
Location and operation of water tight doors – hatches.
Weather information.
Location and operation of bilge and emergency vessel dewatering pump – systems.
Emergency operator and crew arrangements and duties.

 Medical Emergency
1. Operator and crew certified in first aid and CPR.

 Collision
Location of water tight doors and hatches.
Location and operation of bilge and emergency vessel dewatering devices – systems.
Location and use of damage control kit.
Emergency operator and crew arrangements and duties.


Federal Requirements

The Refuse Act of 1899 prohibits throwing, discharging or depositing any refuse matter of any kind (including trash, garbage, oil, and other liquid pollutants into the waters of the United States.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act prohibits the discharge of oil or hazardous substances which may be harmful into U.S. navigable waters. Vessels 26 feet in length and over must display a placard at least 5 by 8 inches, made of durable material, fixed in a conspicuous place in the machinery spaces, or at the bilge pump control station, stating the following:

Discharge of Oil Prohibited

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act prohibits the discharge of oil or oily waste upon or into any navigable waters of the U.S. The prohibition includes any discharge which causes a film or discoloration of the surface of the water or causes a sludge or emulsion beneath the surface of the water. Violators are subject to substantial civil ($5000 if reported, $10,000 non-reported discharge) and/or criminal sanctions including fines and imprisonment.
Regulations issued under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act require all vessels with propulsion machinery to have a capacity to retain oily mixtures on board and be equipped with a fixed or portable means to discharge these oily mixtures to a reception facility. On recreational vessels, a bucket, oil absorbent pads and heavy duty plastic bag, bailer or portable pump are some suitable means that meet the requirement for retention on board until transferring the oily mixture to a reception facility. No person may intentionally drain oil or oily waste from any source into the bilge of any vessel. You must immediately notify the U.S. Coast Guard if your vessel discharges oil or hazardous substances in the water. Call toll-free 800-424-8802 (In Washington, D.C. (202) 267-3675).

The Clean Water Act (33 CFR 153.305) also prohibits the use of soaps or other dispersing agents to dissipate oil on the water or in the bilge without the permission of the Coast Guard. Soaps, emulsifiers and dispersants cause the petroleum to sink in the water column and mix with sediments where they will remain for years. Also, the soaps themselves are pollutants. You may be fined up to $25,000 per incident for the unauthorized use of soap or other dispersing agents on the water or in the bilge.

Report the following information:
time observed

Discharge of Garbage Prohibited

The Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX V) places limitations on the discharge of garbage from vessels. It is illegal to dump plastic trash anywhere in the ocean or navigable waters of the United States. It is also illegal to discharge garbage in the navigable waters of the United States, including inland waters as well as anywhere in the Great Lakes. The discharge of other types of garbage is permitted outside of specific distances offshore as determined by the nature of that garbage. A 4” X 9” placard must be displayed.

United States vessels of 26 feet or longer must display in a prominent location, a durable placard (at least 4” X 9”in size) notifying the crew and passengers of the discharge restrictions.
United States oceangoing vessels of 40 feet or longer, which are engaged in commerce or are equipped with a galley and berthing must have a written Waste Management Plan describing the procedures for collecting, processing, storing and discharging garbage, and designate the person who is in charge of carrying out the plan.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations on 29 January 1976 which revised the Federal standards of performance for marine sanitation devices (MSD's). The regulations apply to all vessels on which toilet facilities have been installed, but do not require the installation of toilet facilities on a vessel which does not already have an installed toilet. The Coast Guard issued regulations which implement these standards on 12 April 1976. The term MSD includes any equipment for installation onboard a vessel which is designed to receive, retain, treat, or discharge sewage and any process which treats such sewage. It does not include "portable devices" which can be carried on and off the vessel. These regulations are effective now for new vessels, and 30 January 1980 for existing vessels.

After the effective date of the regulations (or the date of compliance for those of vessels which comply early), vessels are exempt from state and local regulation of MSD's with one exception. A state may completely prohibit the discharge from all vessels of any sewage, whether treated or not, into some or all of the waters within such state by making a written application to the Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency, and by receiving the Administrator's affirmative determination that adequate facilities for the safe and sanitary removal and treatment of sewage from all vessels are reasonably available for such waters to which the prohibition would apply. In such waters, flow-through devices must be secured to prevent any discharge to the receiving waters. The standards of performance, definitions of new and existing vessels, and the timetable for early and regular compliance are set forth on the reverse side.
NOTE: The revisions in this pamphlet incorporate the most recent Coast guard waiver of 5 July 1978 (43 FR 29637).

General information concerning MSD equipment.

All Marine Sanitation Devices must be Coast Guard certified.
If the unit was built before 30 January 1976, it is considered an "existing device". This equipment, except no-discharge devices built before 30 January 1975, was certified by official letter from the Coast Guard. No-discharge devices built before 30 January 1975 were certified by regulation without a letter, however some manufacturers applied for and received letters certifying their devices. You should obtain a copy of this letter from the manufacturer or distributor as your record that the equipment is Coast Guard certified. If the unit was manufactured on or after 30 January 1976 and is Coast Guard certified, except certain no-discharge devices, it will have a label on it. No-discharge devices being used solely for the storage of sewage and flush-water at ambient pressure and temperature may be certified by definition. Such devices certified in this manner can not be labeled. However, manufacturers may apply for certification on such devices and thereby may label them as Coast Guard certified. That label gives the certification number and indicates whether the equipment has been type approved for inspected or uninspected vessels.
There are two varieties of marine sanitation equipment. One variety treats the waste and then discharges it into the water (Type I or Type II). The second retains the waste onboard or treats it in a manner which does not result in any discharge into the water (Type III). This includes holding tanks, re-circulators and incinerators. You should investigate the area in which you will be operating to determine whether it is a no-discharge or discharge area. Then you can decide on discharge or no-discharge equipment. There are two types of no-discharge areas: Federal, and state or local. Federal regulations prohibiting discharges apply either to a class of waters (see note) or to specific waters (contact your regional EPA office for exact areas). State and local prohibition areas are controlled by the state boating authority or local police. If you are operating in a no-discharge area, check on the availability of pumpout facilities. You can then decide on either retention equipment which will require periodic pumpout, or incinerating equipment which does not. If you operate in both discharge and no-discharge zones, you may want to combine a Type I or Type II unit with Type III equipment to give the necessary flexibility.

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