Friday, October 10, 2008

Lesson 30: Steering and Sailing Rules....

Rule 18, Responsibility Between Vessels

International and Inland – Except where Rules 9 (Narrow Channels), 10 (VSS), and 13 (Overtaking) otherwise require:

(a)International and Inland – A power-driven vessel underway SHALL keep out of the way of: (i) a vessel not under command. (ii) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver. (iii) A vessel engaged in fishing. (iv) A sailing vessel.
(b)International and Inland – A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of: (i) A vessel not under command. (ii) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver. (iii) A vessel engaged in fishing.
(c)International and Inland – A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as possible, keep out of the way of: (i) A vessel not under command. (ii) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver.
(d)International – (i) Any vessel other than a vessel not under command or a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid impeding the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her draft, exhibiting the signals in Rule 28. (ii) A vessel constrained by her draft shall navigate with particular caution having full regard to her special condition.
(e)International and Inland – A seaplane or WIG on the water shall, in general, keep well clear of all vessels and avoid impeding their navigation. In circumstances, however, where risk of collision exists, she shall comply with the rules of this Part.


Not Under Command Red - Red
Restricted in Ability to Maneuver Red – White – Red
- Includes: Mine-sweeps
Constrained by Draft Red – Red – Red
Engaged in Fishing Green – White / Red – White
Sailing Red – Green
Power Driven Vessel None
- Includes: Towing Vessels White – White – White *
- Pilot Vessels White - Red

* Long Tow Requires Third White Mast-head Light

Although a power-driven vessel is required to give way to a sailing vessel approaching so as to involve risk of collision, and can generally be expected to do so, sailing vessels must be aware of the following:

As a small vessel is much more maneuverable than a large one, if a small sailing vessel finds herself so close to a power-driven vessel that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the give-way vessel alone she must be able to avoid collision by her own action. Consequently in the event of a collision the sailing vessel is likely to have to take part of the blame.
If the power-driven vessel is to be expected to keep out of the way of a sailing vessel then the sailing vessel should endeavor to keep her course and speed until collision cannot be avoided by the power-driven vessel alone. A sailing vessel which continually weaves about as a power-driven vessel approaches then attempts at the last moment to cross her bow would be taking a considerable risk.

PART B (continued) – Section III (Subpart III) - Steering and Sailing Rules: Conduct of vessels in Restricted Visibility

Rule 19, Conduct of vessels in Restricted Visibility

(a)International and Inland – This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when navigating in or near an area of restricted visibility.
(b)International and Inland – Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility. A power-driven vessel SHALL have her engines ready for immediate maneuver.
(c)International and Inland – Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility when complying with Rules 4 through 10.
(d)International and Inland – A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another vessel shall determine if a close-quarter situation is developing or risk of collision exists. If so, she shall avoid avoiding action in ample time, provided that when such action consists of an alteration of course, so far as possible the following shall be avoided: (i) An alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken. (ii) An alteration of course toward a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.
(e)International and Inland – Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist, every vessel which hears apparently forward of her beam the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarter situation with another vessel forward of her beam, Shall reduce her speed to the minimum at which she can be kept on course. She SHALL if necessary take all her way off and, in any event, navigate with extreme caution until the danger of collision is over.


Every vessel is directed to go at a safe speed near or in areas of restricted visibility.
Rule 19(b) applies to sailing vessels as well as power-driven vessels. A sailing vessel should have no more sails set than are necessary for her to be kept under command.
Engines should be put into astern:
When the fog signal is heard for the first time in close proximity.
Where the fog signal is heard dead ahead.
Where the fog signals are narrowing on the bow.
Where a vessel is seen to loom out of the fog but her course is not immediately apparent.
Where a sailing vessel’s fog signal is heard forward of the beam.
When two power-driven vessels approach one another in fog so that each hears the fog signal of the other forward of the beam, it would seem to be a minimum requirement that each should take all way off. This does not imply that both vessels should remain stopped until the fog clears. The best plan would be for one vessel to remain stopped, allowing the other to maneuver. However, if one vessel hears the other make a signal of two prolonged blasts she must not assume that the other vessel will remained stopped.
Alterations of course are not condemned by the Rules. An alteration of course in restricted visibility may be justified if a sufficient number of fog signals, or radar observations, have given a reasonable indication of the position and movement of the other vessel.

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