Thursday, October 30, 2008


Brake horsepower is measured at the crankshaft vs shaft horsepower which is the actual amount of power delivered to the propeller. The latter will be less than the former because of friction losses in the transmission and the stern gland. If the powerplant is not correctly aligned, the losses will certainly be greater. As a rule of thumb, shaft horsepower in small craft is usually between 70 and 90 percent of brake horsepower. The Kitty Hawk class aircraft carriers have eight boilers, four geared steam turbines, four shafts and 280,000 shaft what would be the brake horsepower?

Lesson 44: Abandon Ship - Liferafts

Abandon Ship

The decision to abandon ship is usually very difficult. In some instances, people have perished in their life raft while their abandoned vessel managed to stay afloat. Other cases indicate that people waited too long to successfully get clear of a floundering boat.

Once the decision is made:

Put on all available water-proof clothing, including gloves, headgear, and life jacket.

Collect survival kit.

Note present position.

Send out MAYDAY message.

Launch life raft attached to ship.

Launch dinghy attached to life raft.

Try to enter life raft directly from the boat (if impossible, use minimal swimming effort to get on board).

Don't forget the EPIRB (emergency position indicator radio beacon).

Get a safe distance from the sinking vessel.

Collect all available flotsam. The most unlikely articles can be adapted for use under survival conditions.

Keep warm by huddling bodies together. Keep dry, especially your feet.

Stream a sea anchor.

Arrange lookout watches.

Use flares only on skipper's orders when there is a real chance of them being seen.
Arrange for collecting rainwater. Ration water to maximum one-half quart per person per day, issued in small increments. Do not drink seawater or urine. If water is in short supply, eat only sweets from survival rations.

Lifeboats and Liferafts

A lifeboat is a boat carried on board a ship and designed to allow passengers to escape, or a boat kept on land or in a harbor to rescue people in trouble at sea. Lifeboats are also kept at offshore platforms. As such, it is an elaborate version of a life raft. Lifeboats were historically rigid structures built with highly buoyant materials. More recently however, life rafts are inflatable, equipped with auto-inflation carbon dioxide canisters or mechanical pumps, and split into partitions, so that they are much less subject to the adverse effects of exposure to sea water and sunlight. A quick release and pressure release mechanism is fitted so that the canister or pump automatically inflates the lifeboat, and the lifeboat breaks free of the sinking vessel. The hydrostatic release operates at a depth of about 10 to 12 feet or about 6 psi. Usually the raft over inflates and the pressure relief valve will bleed off the excess pressure. No action is required in this instance. In the event the raft inflates up-side-down, one can right the raft by standing on the CO2 cylinder while using righting straps found on the bottom of the raft. Care should be taken not have the CO2 cylinder strike you on the head as you right the raft. The length of the painter on all USCG approved rafts is 100-feet. The painter should not be cut unless the raft is threatened by either fire or sinking. If left uncut, the paint will keep the raft at its last reported position.

Lesson 43: EPIRB


Class A - 121.5/243 MHZ. Float-free, automatically-activating, detectable by aircraft and satellite. Coverage is limited. An alert from this device to a rescue coordination center may be delayed 4 - 6 or more hours. This type of unit is no longer recommended.

Class B - 121.5/243 MHZ. Manually activated version of Class A. No longer recommended.

Class C - VHF ch15/16. Manually activated, operates on maritime channels only. Not detectable by satellite. These devices have been phased out by the FCC and are no longer recognized.

Class S - 121.5/243 MHZ. Similar to Class B, except it floats, or is an integral part of a survival craft. No longer recommended.

Category I - 406/121.5 MHZ. Float-free, automatically activated EPIRB. Detectable by satellite anywhere in the world. Recognized by GMDSS.

Category II - 406/121.5 MHZ. Similar to Category I, except is manually activated. Some models are also water activated.

121.5/243 MHz EPIRB

These are the most common and least expensive type of EPIRB, designed to be detected by over-flying commercial or military aircraft (homing signals are picked up about 12 -15 miles). Satellites were designed to detect these EPIRBs, but are limited for the following reasons:

1. Satellite detection range is limited for these EPIRBs (satellites must be within line of sight of both the EPIRB and a ground terminal for detection to occur),

2. Frequency congestion in the band used by these devices cause a high satellite false alert rate (99.8%); consequently, confirmation is required before search and rescue forces can be deployed,

3. EPIRBs manufactured before October 1989 may have design or construction problems (e.g. some models will leak and cease operating when immersed in water), or may not be detectable by satellite. Such EPIRBs may no longer be sold,

4. Because of location ambiguities and frequency congestion in this band, two or more satellite passes are necessary to determine if the signal is from an EPIRB and to determine the location of the EPIRB, delaying rescue by an average of 4 to 6 hours. In some cases, a rescue can be delayed as long as 12 hours.

5. COSPAS-SARSAT is expected to cease detecting alerts on 121.5 MHz by 2008.
On November 3, 2000, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced that satellite processing 121.5/243 MHz emergency beacons will be terminated on February 1, 2009. Class A and B EPIRBs must be phased out by that date. The U.S. Coast Guard no longer recommends these EPIRBs be purchased.


The 406 MHz EPIRB was designed to operate with satellites. The signal frequency (406 MHz) has been designated internationally for use only for distress. Other communications and interference, such as on 121.5 MHz, is not allowed on this frequency. Its signal allows a satellite local user terminal to accurately locate the EPIRB (much more accurately – within ½ mile), and identify the vessel (the signal is encoded with the vessel's identity) anywhere in the world (there is no range limitation). These devices are detectable not only by COSPAS-SARSAT satellites which are polar orbiting, but also by geostationary GOES weather satellites. EPIRBs detected by the GEOSTAR system, consisting of GOES and other geostationary satellites, send rescue authorities an instant alert, but without location information unless the EPIRB is equipped with an integral GPS receiver. EPIRBs detected by COSPAS-SARSAT (e.g. TIROS N) satellites provide rescue authorities location of distress, but location and sometimes alerting may be delayed as much as an hour or two. These EPIRBs also include a 121.5 MHz homing signal, allowing aircraft and rescue craft to quickly find the vessel in distress. These are the only type of EPIRB which must be certified by Coast Guard approved independent laboratories before they can be sold in the United States.

A new type of 406 MHz EPIRB, having an integral GPS navigation receiver, became available in 1998. This EPIRB will send accurate location as well as identification information to rescue authorities immediately upon activation through both geostationary (GEOSAR) and polar orbiting satellites. These types of EPIRB are the best you can buy (accuracy of position within 100 meters).

406 MHz emergency locating transmitters (ELTs) for aircraft are currently available. 406 MHz personnel locating beacons (PLBs) are available.

The Coast Guard recommends you purchase a 406 MHz EPIRB, preferably one with an integral GPS navigation receiver. A Cat I EPIRB should be purchased if it can be installed properly.

Lesson 42: More Lifesaving

● Stability: Scuppers and freeing ports clear. Seating, deck gear, and hatches secured. Vessel tanked to reduce free surface effect (fuel and water not freely moving in tank).

● Distress Signals, EPIRB, and Radiotelephone Distress Communications: Communicated equipment tested for proper operations. EPIRB tested, armed, and mounted properly. Carry back-up communication gear.

Pyrotechnic Distress Signals 46 CFR 180.68 – 175.120

· Pyrotechnic distress signals are required on all passenger vessels. Pyrotechnic signals are marked with an expiration date (42 months from date of manufacture) and must be replaced at the first COI or re-inspection after the date the flare has expired.
· Vessels on Lakes, Bays and Sounds, or Rivers routes are required, 3 hand red flare distress signals.
· Vessels on Oceans or Coastwise routes are required to carry, 6 hand red flare distress signals.
· The flares are required to be stored in a portable watertight container of bright color.
· As an alternative the signals may be stored in a pyrotechnic locker located above the freeboard deck, away from heat, in the vicinity of the operating station.

Radiotelephone Message:

The international hailing and distress radiotelephone frequencies are VHF Channel 16 (156.8 mHz) and SSB 2182 kHz. When using SSB, the mandatory silent periods for distress calling are three (3) minutes on the hour and on the half hour. Any message prefixed by one of the following pro-words concerns Safety. If you receive a message beginning with one of them pay particular attention and if possible write it down. Always allow at least 1 minute for a coast station to reply before responding.

The U.S. Coast Guard offers MF/HF radiotelephone service to mariners as part of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System. This service, called digital selective calling (DSC), allows mariners to instantly send an automatically formatted distress alert to the Coast Guard or other rescue authority anywhere in the world. Digital selective calling also allows mariners to initiate or receive distress, urgency, safety and routine radiotelephone calls to or from any similarly equipped vessel or shore station, without requiring either party to be near a radio loudspeaker. DSC acts like the dial and bell of a telephone, allowing you to "direct dial" and "ring" other radios, or allow others to "ring" you, without having to listen to a speaker. New VHF and HF radiotelephones have DSC capability. On February 1, 1999, the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, a treaty document, required all passenger ships and most other ships 300 grt and larger on international voyages, including all cargo ships, to carry DSC- equipped radios. Ships were allowed to turn off their 2182 kHz radio listening watch on that date. The International Maritime Organization has postponed indefinitely plans to suspend this VHF watch on ships. It had originally planned to suspend this watch on February 1, 2005.

Means that a ship, aircraft, other vehicle or person/s is in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.

Means that the calling station is passing on a message from a ship, aircraft, other vehicle or person/s in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.

Means that the calling station has an urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft, other vehicle or person/s.

Means that the calling station is in need of medical assistance or advice.

Means that the calling station has a message concerning the safety of navigation or giving important meteorological warnings.
The following pro-words will be transmitted if you disturb the transmissions during a distress situation

Means that the controlling station, in a distress situation is telling you to begin and maintain radio silence. On receipt of this message you must cease transmissions.

Means that a ship station (that may be involved in a distress situation) is telling you to begin and maintain radio silence. On receipt of this message you must cease transmissions.

Lesson 41: Lifesaving

Emergency Procedures and Lifesaving

Muster and Emergencies Procedures

Signal for Fire-Continuous sounding of the vessel’s whistle for at least 10 sec

Signal for Abandon Ship-6 or more short blast followed by long blast of the vessel’s whistle

Man Overboard-Pass the word to bridge – maneuver vessel to recovery man overboard.

Emergencies Equipment and Procedures

Reporting a Serious Marine Incident
Immediately after addressing safety concerns the person in charge shall verbally notify the Marine Safety Office (MSO) in the event of: grounding; engine fails and then restarts for commercial vessels, striking a bridge; loss of life; injury to a person beyond normal first aid; property damage in excess of $25,000. The operator must, within five days, notify the MSO in writing any marine casualty. The marine employer shall determine whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use.

Form CG-2692B must be submitted to the appropriate Officer In Charge, Marine Inspections, following a serious marine incident. The U.S. Coast Guard is now assessing civil penalties against vessel operators who fail to submit the form CG-2692. These and many other USCG forms may be obtained on the USCG web site.

The operator and mate(s) must belong to a Drug Consortium, preferable one that has a Letter of Substantial Compliance (LOSC). The operator and mate must be subject to periodic random testing. The marine employer must report failure of a drug test to the CG. The individual shall be denied employment and subject to revocation against their license. No operator shall perform any duty on a vessel within four hours of consuming any alcohol. The marine employer or a law enforcement officer may direct the operator to undergo a chemical test.
Ready for Sea Safety Uninspected Vessel Check List

1. Weather: Evaluated weather forecast. Make certain that the vessel, passengers, and crew can handle the expected weather safely! Vessel’s operator should monitor weather reports at sea.

2. Crew - Passengers: Pre-departure passenger safety orientation. Adequate numbers of readily accessible and in good, serviceable condition PFDs onboard for passengers and crew. Crew trained and drilled in operation of vessel, MOB procedures, and safety equipment. Work schedule minimizes fatigue (12 in 24 hour rule).

General Safety – Before getting underway the operator in charge must ensure that suitable public announcements be made regarding: stowage of life preservers, proper method of donning life preservers, all types of life saving devices carried aboard the vessel and location of the Emergency Check-off List. The Operator of the vessel shall keep a record of all passengers received and delivered. In addition 46 CFR 26.03-4 requires operators to have onboard the following charts and publications:

Appropriate and up to date charts of sufficient scale to allow for safe navigation.
Copy of the US Coast Pilot
Copy of the Light List
Copy of Tides and Current tables.

Safety Orientation and Emergency Check-Off List

PART 26--OPERATIONS--Table of Contents

Subpart 26.03--Special Operating Requirements

Sec. 26.03-2 Emergency instructions. (a) The operator or master of each uninspected passenger vessel must ensure that an emergency check-off list is posted in a prominent and accessible place to notify the passengers and remind the crew of precautionary measures that may be necessary if an emergency situationoccurs.(b) Except where any part of the emergency instructions are deemed unnecessary by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, the emergency check-off list must contain not less than the applicable portions of the sample emergency check-off list which follows:

Sample Emergency Check-Off List Measures to be considered in the event of: (a) Rough weather at sea or crossing hazardous bars.All weathertight and watertight doors, hatches and airports closed to prevent taking water aboard. Bilges kept dry to prevent loss of stability. Passengers seated and evenly distributed. All passengers wearing life preservers in conditions of very rough seas or if about to cross a bar under hazardous conditions. An international distress call and a call to the Coast Guard over radiotelephone made if assistance is needed (if radiotelephone equipped).(b) Man overboard. Ring buoy thrown overboard as close to the victim as possible. Lookout posted to keep the victim in sight. Crewmember, wearing a life preserver and lifeline, standing by ready to jump into the water to assist the victim back aboard. Coast Guard and all vessels in the vicinity notified by radiotelephone (if radiotelephone equipped). Search continued until after radiotelephone consultation with the Coast Guard, if at all possible.(c) Fire at Sea. Air supply to the fire cut off by closing hatches, ports, doors, and ventilators, etc. Portable extinguishers discharged at the base of the flames of flammable liquid or grease fires or water applied to fires in combustible solids. If fire is in machinery spaces, fuel supply and ventilation shut off and any installed fixed fire fighting system discharged. Vessel maneuvered to minimize the effect of wind on the fire. Coast Guard and all vessels in the vicinity notified by radiotelephone of the fire and vessel location (if radiotelephone equipped). Passengers moved away from fire and wearing life preservers.

Personal Flotation Devices (PFD) and Other Lifesaving Equipment [46 CFR25.25].
An USCG approved and readily available PFD is required to be on board thevessel for each individual on board. An exposure suit is considered to be an acceptable substitute for a PFD. All lifesaving equipment designed to be worn is required to be readily available and in serviceable condition. Each life float or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be marked with the vessel's name and or number of persons allowed on each.

Each vessel 26 feet or longer must have at least one approved ring life buoy which is immediately available. The diameter size of the ring depends on the vessel length. All lifesaving equipment designed to be thrown into the water is required to be immediately available and in serviceable condition.

An approved commercial hybrid PFD is acceptable if worn when the vessel is underway and the intended wearer is not within an enclosed space; labeled for use on un-inspected commercial vessels; and used as marked and in accordance with the owner's manual.

An approved light is required for all PFDs and exposure suits. Also, allPFDs must have the proper amount of approved retro-reflective material installed for oceanwise, coastwise, and Great Lakes.

Types of Personal Flotation Devices (PFD)

TYPE I: Off-Shore Life Jacket (minimum of 22 pounds of floatation)This life vest is best for open, rough or remote water, or where rescue may be slow coming. Provides the best floatation. Turns most unconscious wearers face-up in the water.

TYPE II: Near-Shore Buoyant Life Vest (minimum of 15 ½ pounds of floatation)Good for calm, inland waters or where rescue is likely to happen quickly. Turns some unconscious wearers face-up in water.

TYPE III: Floatation Aid (minimum of 15 ½ pounds of floatation)Usually the most comfortable life vest for continuous wear. Good for calm, inland waters or where rescue is likely to happen quickly.

TYPE IV: Throwable DeviceGood for calm, inland water with heavy boat traffic where help is always nearby. Device can be thrown to the wearer and some can be used as a floatation cushion.
Special Use DeviceMade for specific conditions and activities and to be used only for the designated use. Some devices only approved when worn. Refer to PDF label on device for limitations on use. Types include boardsailing vests, work vests and hybrid.

Man Overboard Procedures

Basic Steps for Recovering a Person in the Water

Step 1: Yell "MAN OVERBOARD" as loudly as you can. Then point to the person in the water. Never take your eyes off that person and keep pointing even as the boat turns around for retrieval. If you don't see the importance of doing this, throw an old basketball over your stern in 3-foot seas with whitecaps showing. Next, look away and wait until the boat gets turned around. Chances are you won't be able to find the basketball again.

Step 2: Get a flotation device to the person in the water immediately. A life ring, a cushion or a horseshoe buoy are good examples of the Type IV throwable devices that must be readily available for fast deployment.

Step 3: Turn the boat around ASAP without endangering your remaining crew.
The old, "tried and true" method is to glance at your compass course and then turn until you are steering a reciprocal course. That's 180o added to or subtracted from your course, as the case may be. For example, if you were steering 030o, the reciprocal would be 030o + 180o = 210o. Or, if you were steering 210o, the reciprocal would be 210o – 180o = 030o.
The modern method makes use of the newer GPS units that have a MOB button. You push this button as soon as someone yells "MAN OVERBOARD"; the GPS locks that position in the unit and gives you the return course back to that spot.

Step 4: Deploy a floatable retrieval line. For example, a 100-foot polypropylene (floating) line with one end permanently attached to the stern of the boat. The other end is attached to a drogue chute that deploys the line behind the boat when thrown (much like a water-ski tow line). Then, as the boat circles around the person in the water, the line will pass right across his position.

Step 5: Get the victim back into the boat as soon as possible. This is sometimes the hardest part of the rescue. The person may be exhausted, injured or suffering from hypothermia. If your boat is small, pull the person in over the stern. This greatly reduces the chance of capsizing due to too much weight on one side of the boat. In a larger boat, your best bet is probably to pull the person in, using the tow line, to the swim ladder and swim platform.

It is important that everyone on board knows what to do in case of a man-overboard situation. Often the helmsman will not know of the situation until hearing the alert, while observers of the incident try to maintain eye contact with the victim.

Actions of Observers to a Man-Overboard Situation or MOB

· Shout – Hail and Pass the Word “Man Overboard (Port or Starboard) Side” until the helmsman is alerted.
· Immediately throw a life ring buoy or a PFD towards the victim.
· Do not break eye contact if at all possible.
· Point continuously towards the victim.
· If need be designate someone to continuously point.
· Don life jackets and prepare lifelines for retrieval.

Actions of the Helmsman in a Man-Overboard Situation

Upon hearing the man-overboard alert (MOB), the first action by the helmsman should be to immediately put the helm hard over to the same side as the person fell overboard. This action will swing the stern (and the propellers) of the vessel away from the victim. A turn that will bring the ship back around to retrieve the victim should then be immediately initiated. At the same time a PAN-PAN message altering vessels nearby should be sent and, if available, the man-over-board (MOB) button located on a GPS unit should be activated.

The following turns may be used to retrieve the victim:

· Round or Single Turn – The fastest turn for small maneuverable vessels. Approach angle is not good for larger vessels.

· Race Tack Turn – Quickest turn for larger vessels. Use only if the victim is visible at all times.

· Scharnow Turn – Used when the location of the victim is unknown. Turn until headed 240 degrees from the original course. Swing back until headed 180 degrees in the opposite direction of the original course. Quickest away to retrace the original track.

· Williamson Turn – Best executed immediately upon hearing the alert. Turn hard over 60 degrees to the side the person fell. Turn back hard 240 degrees until headed 180 degrees in the opposite direction of the original course. Takes a little longer than the Scharnow turn, but it puts the vessel on the reciprocal course faster.

Rescue of Survivor Procedures

The vessel should approach with the victim on the leeward side to provide some protection from waves. Wind will cause the vessel to drift towards the victim aiding in retrieval. The pick up should be made mid-ships if at all possible, ensuring isolation from the propellers. A stepladder is the best away to retrieve the victim. If necessary, tethered, life-jacketed crew can assist from the water. If no ladders are available the victim may have to be lifted out of the water by a line using a Bowline-on a Bight or French bowline.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Fall License Harvest Time.....

Congrats to the graduates of Capt Rodriguez's Friday Harbor Master 100 license class....

Ship's Log Requirements....


On domestic voyages you are required to log activities such as drills, maintenance of vessels equipment and servicing/maintenance of lifesaving equipment.
Entries should be carefully made in ink and plain language using accepted nautical terms.
Do not erase, ink over, white-out mistakes or remove pages from logbook. Simply draw a line (---) through the mistake and initial beside it.
Lifesaving maintenance, Drills & Training - 46 CFR 122.702 and 46 CFR 185.720
Weekly maintenance and inspections

(a) Each survival craft and launching appliance must be visually inspected to ensure its readiness for use -46 CFR 122.722 and 46 CFR 185.722
Monthly inspection
(a) Each survival craft, rescue boat and launching appliance on a vessel must be inspected monthly, using the manufacturers instructions to make sure it is complete and in good order -46 CFR 122.520 and 46 CFR 185.520
Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training
The master shall conduct sufficient drills and give sufficient instructions to make sure that all crew members are familiar with their duties during emergencies that necessitate abandoning ship or the recovery of persons who have fallen overboard.
Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training shall be logged or otherwise documented for review by the Coast Guard upon request. The drill entry shall include the following information:
The date of the drill and training; and General description of the drill scenario and training topics.
46 CFR 122.524 and 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training
The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of a fire.
Fire fighting drills and training shall be logged or otherwise documented for review by the Coast Guard upon request. The drill entry shall include the following information:
Date of the drill and training; and general description of the drill scenario and training topics.
Signaling Devices (distress) - Flares and Day smokes (correct number and expiration) - 46 CFR 180.68. Stowed in brightly colored, portable watertight container Marked “DISTRESS SIGNALS” - 46 CFR 185.614

If vessel travels it must carry:
Oceans/coastwise/limited coastwise/ Great lakes route
6 Red hand flares
6 Orange day smokes
Lakes, Bays, Sounds/Rivers route
3 Red hand flares
3 Orange day smokes

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Boats and Horsepower Ratings....

According to the USCG per the CFRs...

Sec. 183.53 Horsepower capacity.

The maximum horsepower capacity marked on a boat must not exceed the horsepower capacity determined by the computation method discussed in paragraph (a) of this section, or for certain qualifying boats, the performance test method discussed in paragraph (b) of this section. (a) The maximum horsepower capacity must be computed as follows: (1) Compute a factor by multiplying the boat length in feet by the maximum transom width in feet excluding handles and other similar fittings, attachments, and extensions. If the boat does not have a full transom, the transom width is the broadest beam in the aftermost quarter length of the boat. (2) Locate horsepower capacity corresponding to the factor in Table 183.53. (3) For a boat with a factor over 52.5, if the horsepower capacity calculated in Table 183.53 is not an exact multiple of 5, it may be raised to the next exact multiple of 5. (4) For flat bottom hard chine boats with a factor of 52 or less, the horsepower capacity must be reduced by one horsepower capacity increment in
See Table 183.53--Outboard Boat Horsepower Capacity

(b) For boats qualifying under this paragraph, the performance test method described in this paragraph may be used to determine the horsepower capacity. (1) Qualifying criteria. (i) Thirteen feet or less in length; (ii) Remote wheel steering; (iii) Transom height (A) Minimum 19 inch transom height; or, (B) For boats with at least a 19 inch motorwell height, a minimum 15 inch transom height; (iv) Maximum persons capacity not over two persons; (2) Boat preparation. (i) The boat must be rigged with equipment recommended or provided by the boat and motor manufacturer and tested with the highest horsepower production powerplant for which the boat is to be rated, not to exceed 40 horsepower. (ii) Standard equipment must be installed in accordance with manufacturers' instructions. (iii) The lowest ratio (quickest) steering system offered on the boat model being tested must be installed. (iv) The outboard motor must be fitted with the manufacturer's recommended propeller providing maximum speed. (v) Standard permanently installed fuel tanks must be no more than one-half full. Boats without permanent tanks must be tested with one full portable tank. (vi) Portable tanks must be in their designated location or placed as far aft as possible. (vii) The outboard motor must be placed in the lowest vertical position on the transom or, if mounting instructions are provided with the boat, at the height recommended. (viii) Boat bottom, motor and propeller must be in new or almost new condition. Note: The use of the following special equipment should be considered because of the potential for exceeding the capabilities of the boat while performing the test:Racing Type Personal Flotation DeviceHelmet. (3) Test conditions. Testing must be conducted on smooth, calm water with the wind speed below 10 knots. The test must be conducted with no load other than a driver who must weigh no more than 200 pounds. The motor trim angle must be adjusted to provide maximum full throttle speed short of excessive porpoising or propeller ventilation or ``cavitation'', so that there is no loss of directional control. (4) Quick turn test procedure. Set throttle at a low maneuvering speed and steer the boat straight ahead. Turn the steering wheel 180[deg] in the direction of least resistance in \1/2\ second or less and hold it at that position without changing the throttle or trim settings during or after the wheel change. The boat completes the maneuver successfully if it is capable of completing a 90[deg] turn without the driver losing control of the boat or reducing the throttle setting. Gradually increase the boat's turn entry speed incrementally until the boat does not complete the Quick Turn Test successfully or successfully completes it at maximum throttle. Note: It is recognized that operator skill and familiarity with a particular boat and motor combination will affect the test results. It is permissible to make a number of practice runs through the quick turn test at any throttle setting. (5) Test course method. Set throttle for 30 miles per hour boat speed and run the test course set up in accordance with Figure 183.53, passing outside the designated avoidance marker for 35 to 37.5 miles per hour without contacting any of the course markers. If the boat successfully completes this run of the test course, increase the throttle setting to 35 to 37.5 miles per hour boat speed and run the course passing outside the designated avoidance marker for that speed without contacting any of the course markers. If the boat successfully completes this run of the test course and the motor was not at full throttle, increase the throttle setting to 37.5 to 42.5 miles per hour boat speed and run the course passing outside the designated avoidance marker for that speed without contacting any of the course markers. If the boat successfully completes this run of the test course and the motor was not at full throttle, increase the throttle setting to 42.5 miles per hour or more and run the course passing outside the designated avoidance marker for that speed without contacting any of the course markers. If the boat successfully completes this run of the test course and the motor was not at full throttle, continue to increase the throttle setting and run the test course passing outside the designated avoidance marker for 42.5 miles per hour or more until the boat fails to complete the test successfully or the boat completes the test course maneuvers successfully at full throttle. The boat successfully completes the test course if the driver is able to maneuver it between the designated avoidance markers without striking the markers and without losing control of the boat or reducing the throttle setting. There must be no change in position of any equipment on board and there must be no change of position of personnel in order to influence the test results. There must be no instability evidenced by oscillating motion in the roll or yaw axes exhibited while negotiating the course. Note: It is recognized that operator skill and familiarity with a particular boat and motor combination will affect the test results. It is therefore considered permissible to make a number of practice runs through the test course at any throttle setting. (6) Maximum horsepower capacity. (i) For boats capable of less than 35 miles per hour, the maximum horsepower capacity must be the maximum horsepower with which the boat was able to successfully complete the Quick Turn Test Procedure in Sec. 183.53(b)(4) at full throttle or the maximum horsepower determined under the calculations in Sec. 183.53(a) of this section. (ii) For boats capable of 35 miles per hour or more, the maximum horsepower capacity must be the maximum horsepower with which the boat was able to successfully complete both the Quick Turn Test Procedure in Sec. 183.53(b)(4) and the Test Course Method in Sec. 183.53(b)(5) at full throttle or the calculations in Sec. 183.53(a) of this section. (iii) The maximum horsepower capacity determined in accordance with Sec. 183.53(b) must not exceed 40 horsepower. Figure 183.53--Boat Horsepower Capacity Test Course--35 MPH or More[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC18OC91.021

Subpart J_Fuel SystemsSec. 183.526 Carburetors. (a) [Reserved] (b) Each carburetor must not leak more than five cubic centimeters of fuel in 30 seconds when: (1) The float valve is open; (2) The carburetor is at half throttle; and (3) The engine is cranked without starting; or (4) The fuel pump is delivering the maximum pressure specified by its manufacturer. (c) Each updraft and horizontal draft carburetor must have a device that: (1) Collects and holds fuel that flows out of the carburetor venturi section toward the air intake; (2) Prevents collected fuel from being carried out of the carburetor assembly by the shock wave of a backfire or by reverse air flow; and (3) Returns collected fuel to the engine induction system after the engine starts,Subpart J_Fuel SystemsSec. 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically operated fuel pump must not operate except when the engine is operating or when the engine is started. (c) If tested under Sec. 183.590, each fuel pump, as installed in the boat, must not leak more than five ounces of fuel in 2\1/2\ minutes, inclusive of leaks from fuel line, fuel filter and strainer.Subpart I_Electrical SystemsSec. 183.410 Ignition protection. (a) Each electrical component must not ignite a propane gas and air mixture that is 4.25 to 5.25 percent propane gas by volume surrounding the electrical component when it is operated at each of its manufacturer rated voltages and current loadings, unless it is isolated from gasoline fuel sources, such as engines, and valves, connections, or other fittings in vent lines, fill lines, distribution lines or on fuel tanks, in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. (b) An electrical component is isolated from a gasoline fuel source if: (1) A bulkhead that meets the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section is between the electrical component and the gasoline fuel source; (2) The electrical component is: (i) Lower than the gasoline fuel source and a means is provided to prevent fuel and fuel vapors that may leak from the gasoline fuel source from becoming exposed to the electrical component; or (ii) Higher than the gasoline fuel source and a deck or other enclosure is between it and the gasoline fuel source; or (3) The space between the electrical component and the gasoline fuel source is at least two feet and the space is open to the atmosphere. (c) Each bulkhead required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section must: (1) Separate the electrical component from the gasoline fuel source and extend both vertically and horizontally the distance of the open space between the fuel source and the ignition source; (2) Resist a water level that is 12 inches high or one-third of the maximum height of the bulkhead, whichever is less, without seepage of more than one-quarter fluid ounce of fresh water per hour; and (3) Have no opening located higher than 12 inches or one-third the maximum height of the bulkhead, whichever is less, unless the opening is used for the passage of conductors, piping, ventilation ducts, mechanical equipment, and similar items, or doors, hatches, and access panels, and the maximum annular space around each item or door, hatch or access panel must not be more than one-quarter inch.

Lesson 40: Fire

Fire Fighting and Prevention

Fire prevention can be effectively achieved through good housekeeping. Even though it is essential you know how to fight a fire and have the correct equipment on board, never having to fight fire is a far better course of action.
Fire at sea does not discriminate.

Any fire on a boat, especially fires involving flammable fuel, can be a terrifying experience with the potential to cause serious burns or death.

It is a fact that petrol and oil fires aboard vessels spread rapidly generate intense heat and usually overwhelm those on board. In many cases they are either blown or jump overboard.
The answer to the problem lies in preventing fires rather than fighting them.

A great number of fires or explosions occur immediately after boats have been refueled. By using common sense and taking proper precautions, boating fires can be prevented.

Have the correct fire extinguishers in your boat, know how to use them, maintain them and locate them in accessible areas.

Keep the bilge and engine room clean and free of rags, newspapers and other combustible materials.

Regularly check that engine rooms are properly ventilated.

Use only appliances such as stoves and heaters that are approved for marine use.

Never use cigarette lighters or matches while searching in lockers, use a battery powered torch.

Check fuel systems at regular intervals for leaks and spillage.

Any spare fuel should be carried in approved containers.

Check the electrical system for faults regularly and keep all components as clean as possible.

Some common causes of fire aboard small craft

Engine backfiring in air laden with combustible vapor.

Hot exhaust pipe igniting adjacent combustible materials.

Spontaneous combustion of oil rags in badly ventilated compartments.

A spark caused by static electricity during refueling.

Short-circuiting and overloading of the electrical system.

Remember, to avoid potential fire hazards – all fuel systems, electrical systems and LP Gas systems should be correctly designed, installed and maintained by qualified persons.


Turn off all engines, motors, fans, heating devices, electrical equipment and LP Gas appliances before fuelling.

Take care when refueling! Don’t smoke or allow naked flames on or in the vicinity of your vessel while fuelling. Fuel spilled, either accidentally or from overflowing the fuel tanks, produces vapors which can enter the bilge and may be ignited by a spark – often from the boat’s electrical system.

Have a filled fire extinguisher handy.

Wipe up all spills.

Leave room in tanks for fuel expansion.

Check bilges for leakage and fuel odors, ventilate until fuel odor is gone, before starting engines.

Never refill portable fuel tanks in the boat; take them ashore for filling and wipe off any spillage before replacing them aboard.

Fuel related fires could also start when a vessel is underway. These fires generally result when some component of the fuel system starts to leak and vapors trapped in the vessel’s bilge are ignited. Regularly inspect and maintain fuel systems and avoid using temporary or “stop gap” solutions to fix leaks.

Electrical installation

Frequent, fires and explosions aboard small vessels are caused by short circuits or overloading. To ensure protection from these hazards, have all electrical installation and maintenance carried out by a qualified marine electrician.

Never undertake temporary repairs using makeshift materials, except in an emergency.
Never use multiple adaptors for connecting appliances a circuit not initially designed for this purpose.
Never replace an existing fuse with a larger one.
Never overcharge batteries as these release excessive amounts of the explosive gas hydrogen into the air during recharging.
Ensure battery spaces are well ventilated.

LP Gas

Ensure all LP Gas installations are carried out and serviced by a qualified technician.
Regularly check permanent ventilators, flues and vents to ensure that they are clear.
Leakages can lead to suffocation or explosions.

Remember LP Gas is heavier than air. Any leaked gas will always flow downwards, collect in low places and will be slow to dissipate without ample ventilation and movement of air.
Always turn off gas at the bottle.

What is Fire?

In order to have a fire, there must be three elements:
Fuel -- something which will burn.
Heat -- enough to make the fuel burn.
Oxygen – air (between 16 and 21% O2)

Fire Triangle

All three elements must be present at the same time to have a fire. Fire will burn until one or more of the elements is removed, and then will go out.

It is essential that the vessel’s operator and crew be familiar with the proper use of portable extinguishers and know when and when not to use them. In the event of a fire, deck crew should respond in accordance with a pre-arranged fire-emergency plan. Specifically trained and designated crew members will evaluate the fire scene and, if the fire is small and conditions are reasonably safe, use a fire extinguisher to fight the fire. If the fire is large or conditions are unsafe, all crew members and passengers will evacuate.

Classes of Fires

There are four classes of fires. All fire extinguishers are labeled, using standard symbols, for the classes of fires on which they can be used. A red slash through any of the symbols tells you the extinguisher cannot be used on that class of fire. A missing symbol tells you only that the extinguisher has not been tested for a given class of fire, but may be used if an extinguisher labeled for that class of fire is not available.

· Class A – Anything that would leave an ash residue: wood, paper, textiles, rubber, plastic, etc.

· Class B – Any combustible liquid: oils, grease, alcohols, paints, and etc.

· Class C – Anything involving electricity: electrical equipment and motors, circuits, and etc.

· Class D – Any combustible metal: magnesium aluminum, and etc.

Remember that the extinguisher must be appropriate for the type of fire being fought. Multipurpose fire extinguishers, labeled ABC, may be used on all three classes of fire. If you use the wrong type of extinguisher, you can endanger yourself and make the fire worse. It is also very dangerous to use water or an extinguisher labeled only for Class A fires on a cooking-grease or electrical fire.

Fire Extinguisher Sizes

Portable extinguishers are also rated for the size of fire they can handle. This rating is expressed as a number from 1 to 40 for Class A fires and from 1 to 640 for Class B fires. This rating will appear on the label --- 2A:10B:C, for example. The larger the numbers, the larger the fire of a specific class on which the extinguisher can be used (but higher-rated models are often heavier - make sure you can hold and operate an extinguisher before you buy it). No number accompanies an extinguisher's Class C rating. The C on the label indicates only that the extinguisher is safe to use on electrical fires.

Extinguishers for Class D fires must match the type of metal that is burning. These extinguishers do not use numerical ratings. Extinguishers for Class D fires are labeled with a list detailing the metals that match the unit's extinguishing agent.

Types of Fire Extinguishers

Depending on their intended use, portable extinguishers store specific "extinguishing agents," which are expelled onto the fire.

Pressurized water models are appropriate for use on Class A fires only. These must never be used on electrical or flammable-liquid fires.

Carbon dioxide extinguishers contain pressurized liquid carbon dioxide, which turns to a gas when expelled. These models are rated for use on Class B and C fires, but can be used on a Class
A fire. Carbon dioxide does not leave a residue.

Dry-chemical extinguishers are either stored-pressure models or cartridge-operated models. The stored-pressure models have a lever above the handle for operation. The cartridge-operated models require two steps: Depress the cartridge lever, and then squeeze the nozzle at the end of the hose. The dry chemicals leave a residue that must be cleaned up after use.
Ammonium phosphate dry chemical can be used on Class A, B, and C fires, but should never be used on a fire in a commercial grease fryer because of the possibility of reflash and because it will render the fryer's automatic fire-protection system less effective.
Sodium bicarbonate dry chemical, suitable for fighting Class B and C fires, is preferred over other dry-chemical extinguishers for fighting grease fires. Where provided, always use the extinguishing system first. This also shuts off the heat to the appliance.
Potassium bicarbonate, urea-base potassium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride dry chemical are more effective and use less agent than sodium bicarbonate on the same fire.
Foam (or AFFF and FFFP) extinguishers coat the surface of a burning flammable liquid with a chemical foam. When using a foam extinguisher, blanket the entire surface of the liquid to exclude the air.

Remember the PASS Word

Keep your back to an unobstructed exit and stand six to eight feet away from the fire.
Follow the four-step procedure:Pull, Aim, Squeeze, and Sweep
» PULL the pin: This unlocks the operating lever and allows you to discharge the extinguisher. Some extinguishers may have other lever-release mechanisms.
» AIM low: Point the extinguisher nozzle (or hose) at the base of the fire.
» SQUEEZE the lever above the handle: This discharges the extinguishing agent. Releasing the lever will stop the discharge. (Some extinguishers have a button instead of a lever.)
» SWEEP from side to side: Moving carefully toward the fire, keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the fire and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out. Watch the fire area. If the fire re-ignites, repeat the process.

Fire Extinguishing Equipment [46 CFR 25.30].

Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire extinguishingsystems must be of the "B" type (i.e.; suitable for extinguishing firesinvolving flammable liquids, greases, etc.).b. Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire extinguishingsystems must have a plate listing the name of the item, rated capacity(gallons, quarts or pounds), name and address of person/firm for whomapproved, and manufacturer's identifying mark.c. Portable fire extinguishers must be inspected and weighed every 6 months.d. Minimum number of B-II hand portable fire extinguishers required to be on board motor vessels: one if less than 50 tons and two if 50-100 tons..e. Fixed fire extinguishing systems must be an approved carbon dioxide type and must meet the U.S. Coast Guard requirements.

All fire extinguishers must CG approved or UL listed for marine use. All hand portable extinguishers must be Type “B”. Vessels less than 26’ must carry one fire extinguisher. Vessels 26-40’ must carry two while vessels greater than 40’ must carry three.
èProcedures for Fighting Onboard Fires
a. SIGNAL: Continuous sounding of ship's whistle for at least 10 seconds.
b. FIND the fire, the location, and its size
c. INFORM the Captain immediately to:
Sound the general alarm to muster the crew and notify all hands.
Make a distress call to Coast Guard and nearby vessels.
Activate emergency firefighting equipment.
d. RESTRICT the fire
Shut off air supply to the fire - close hatches, ports, etc.
De-energize electrical systems in affected space
Set fire boundaries to confine the fire
Shut off fuel supply and ventilation
Maneuver vessel to minimize the effect of wind on the fire
Prior to activating fixed extinguishing system, ensure that all personnel have been evacuated from the space
e. EXTINGUISH the fire
Determine class of fire, appropriate equipment, extinguishing agent and method of attack
Overhaul and set re-flash watch
Muster crew to account for all personnel.
If unable to control fire, prepare to abandon vessel.
If water is used for extinguishing, dewatering procedures should start immediately to avoid vessel stability issues.
èNEVER fight a fire if even one of the following is true:
· The fire is spreading beyond the immediate area in which it started or is already a large fire.
· The fire could block your escape route.
· You are unsure of the proper operation of the extinguisher.
· You doubt that the extinguisher you are holding is designed for the type of fire at hand or is large enough to fight the fire.

Monday, October 27, 2008

Lesson 39: Helm Commands

Commonly Used Helm Commands

When a command is given to the helmsman, the first part of the order indicates the direction (right or left) for the helmsman to turn the wheel. The second part of the command states the amount of angle. The following are some commonly used steering commands.

"Right (or left) full rudder." Full rudder designates a 30° rudder. When the rudder is turned past 30° (usually designated hard right or left), care must be exercised to avoid jamming it against the stops.

"Right (or left) 5°, 10°, 15°, and so on." This indicates the angle, in degrees, that the rudder is to be offset.

"Right (or left) easy." Usually indicates 2 or 3 degrees of rudder angle in the direction indicated. Some Masters may prefer 5 degrees of rudder angle for this command. This should be understood in the vessels SOP.

"Give her more rudder." To increase the rudder angle already on when it is desired to turn the ship more rapidly in the direction in which she is already turning.

"Ease the rudder." To decrease the rudder angle. The order may also be: "Ease to (state number) degrees."

"Rudder amidships." To place the rudder on the centerline.

"Meet her." To check, but not stop, the swing by putting the rudder in the opposite direction. Usually this order is used when it is desired to keep the ship from swinging past her new course.

"Steady" or "steady as you go." To steer the present course while the ship is swinging. The course should be noted at the time the order is given and the ship steadied on that course.

"Shift the rudder." To change from right to left (or left to right) rudder. Usually given when a ship loses her headway and begins to gather sternway and it is desired to keep her turning in the same direction.

"Mind your rudder." To steer more carefully or stand by for an order.

"Keep her so." To steer the course just reported, following a request for that course.

Repeating Commands

To assure the watch officer that his orders have been correctly received, the helmsman must always repeat, word for word, any command received. As soon as the command has been executed, the helmsman must also report it to the watch officer. The watch officer confirms that the order is understood by replying, "Very well."

Changes in CFR's .....

Thanks Norleen for the information !

Federal Register: September 11, 2008 (Volume 73, Number 177)
[ Pages 52789-52795 (only part of p. 52789 & 52795 copied below)]
Coast Guard
46 CFR Parts 10 and 15
[Docket No. USCG-2006-26202]
RIN 1625-AB10
Training and Service Requirements for Merchant Marine Officers
AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS.
ACTION: Final rule.
SUMMARY: The Coast Guard amends certain regulations relating to mariner training and service. These regulatory changes remove the expiration date of the radar-observer endorsement from the merchant mariner's license, allow for an apprentice mate of towing vessels to reduce sea-service time for mate (pilot) of towing vessels by completing additional approved training, and provide an alternate path to mate (pilot) of towing vessels for master of steam or motor vessels of any tonnage that is 200 GRT or less. These changes are intended and expected to eliminate confusion and provide alternate training and service requirements for mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

DATES: This final rule is effective October 14, 2008.

46 CFR 15.815 Radar observers.

(d) Each person who is required to hold a radar endorsement must have their certificate of training readily available to demonstrate that the endorsement is still valid.
(e) For the purposes of this section, ``readily available'' means that the mariner must carry the original certificate of training or a notarized copy thereof onboard. Alternatively, the mariner must provide a copy of the certificate of training to the requesting entity within 48 hours. The requested material may be delivered either physically, electronically, or by facsimile.

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Cross Staff.....

The cross-staff in use in 1579 was a simple device that worked reasonably well for measuring the angle of the sun above the horizon at noon. It was fitted with one movable vane (transversary) that, with the end of the staff placed at the eye of the observer, was positioned so that it appeared to touch both the horizon and the sun. The angle was then read from a scale on the staff. In his Regiment, Bourne admonishes the navigator against using the cross-staff for measuring an altitude of over 50°, the maximum angle that the sun and the horizon could be taken in together with one glance. The cross-staff was the method of resort on a rocking ship since its use did not rely on gravity.

The quadrant is a very simple instrument of medieval origin used to determine the altitude of a heavenly body. It takes it name from its shape, which is a quarter of a circle. The curved edge is divided from 0 to 90 degrees. At the apex is a right angle, where a cord with a small weight, or plumb-bob, of lead or brass is attached. Along one straight edge are mounted two upright pieces with holes for sighting. When in use, the quadrant is held vertically so the plumb-line falls across the scale of degree markings, and from this the angle of elevation can be read.


Although pocket-watches were known in John Harrison's time, they were large and expensive, and not remotely capable of keeping time well enough for sea navigation. Harrison's earlier efforts (H1, H2, and H3) were variations on much larger clockworks, but the 3-pound, 5-inch-diameter H4 was truly revolutionary, capable of timekeeping on par with the finest observatory-class clocks of the day even while underway. Capt. James Cook used a copy of Harrison's H4 on his travels.

Chron - Lon...


In the age of the great navigators--of Columbus, Magellan, Drake, Frobisher, Bering and others--finding your latitude was the easy part. Captains knew how to use the noontime Sun, the North Star - and before sextant was invented, a less precise instrument known as the cross-staff was widely used.

Longitude was a much harder nut to crack. In principle, all one needs is an accurate clock, set to Greenwich time. When the Sun "passes the meridian" at noon, we only need to check the clock: if Greenwich time is 3 p.m., we know that 3 hours ago it was noon at Greenwich and we are therefore at longitude 15° x 3 = 45 degrees west.

However, accurate clocks require a fairly sophisticated technology. Pendulum clocks can keep time quite accurately on firm land, but the pitching and rolling of a ship makes them quite unsuitable for sea duty.

Non-pendulum clocks--e.g. wristwatches, before they became electronic--use a balance wheel, a small balance wheel rotating back and forth through a small angle. A flat spiral spring is wrapped around its axis and it always brings the wheel back to its original position. The period of each back-and-forth oscillation is then only determined by the strength of the spring and the mass of the wheel, and it can replace the swing of the pendulum in controlling the motion of the clock's hands. For navigation, however, such a clock must be very accurate, which is not easy to achieve: friction must be minimal, and so must changes in the dimensions of the balance wheel and properties of the spring due to changing temperature and other factors.

In the 17th and 18th century, when the navies of Britain, Spain, France and Holland all tried to dominate the seas, the "problem of longitude" assumed great strategic importance and occupied some of the best scientific minds. In 1714 Britain announced a prize of 20,000 pounds--a huge sum in those days--for a reliable solution, and John Harrison, a British clockmaker, spent decades trying to achieve it. His first two "chronometers," of 1735 and 1739, though accurate, were bulky and delicate pieces of machinery; they have been restored and are ticking away on public display, at the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich. Only his 4th instrument, tested in 1761, proved satisfactory, and it took some additional years before he received his prize.

Friday, October 24, 2008

One Last Thought for the Day -

I must go down to the sea again
To the lonely sea and sky
And all I ask is a tall ship
And a star to steer her by

Sea Fever by John Masefield

Time = Longitude - Longitude = Time

When I was in London last year - I had the chance to visit the Royal Observatory where this drama played out nearly three centuries ago....

John Harrison - Longitude....

Although John Harrison had advanced a practical method of finding longitude (60 minutes equal 15 degrees of longitude equals 900 nautical miles at the equator - so time equals distance and distance equals time) with his prizewinning chronometer, H-4, in 1759, his successors still faced the formidable challenge of making his complex and delicate design readily reproducible and affordable.

Benefiting from technical improvements like the detent escapement and the temperature-compensated balance wheel, a simplified version of H-4 would remain the basis of chronometer design. However, significant advances would be made in chronometer production.

The demand for chronometers fell off as the age of exploration drew to a close, but was temporarily revived by the need for navigational instruments during both World Wars. However, this period also saw the rise of alternative methods of navigation based on radio and radar which, before long, would eclipse the chronometer. It must be noted that although considered a secondary means of navigation today, the chronometer is the only navigational method that is completely self-reliant. in the event of downed power sources, loss of radio communications, or satellite malfunction, the chronometer remains a reliable means of navigating the seas.

Thursday, October 23, 2008

World's Record...

Tohatsu outboard motor production began in 1932, they manufactured reliable motors for commericial Japanese fishermen which needed a motor that could run for days on end, no matter what the weather requiring ocean-tested engineering that enables motors to work under the demanding and often harsh conditions. I guess it comes as no big surprise that Tohatsu holds the world record for the smallest outboard motor ever used to cross the Atlantic Ocean. You would never guess this task was accomplished with a 2.5 hp engine!

World's Biggest Engine....

The Most Revered Father Captain Robert Heay sent me this...

The worlds biggest engine is the Wartsila-Sulzer RTA96-C. It is a turbo charged two stroke diesel engine and it is the most powerful and efficient low revolution engine in the world today.The Wartsila-Sulser is manufactured by the Aioi Works in Japan and is part of Japans Diesel United Ltd engine manufacturers. The pictures are of an 89 foot long 44 foot wide 12 cylinder engine, literally as big as a house ! What I find confusing is why they haven't actually built the ship around the engine ? How they actually get the 2000 ton engine out of the plant and moreover install an engine of this size into a ship makes the mind boggle.

These large engines are designed to power the worlds super oil tankers and large container ships. They are built to the shipowners preferences. They usually request an engine construction of a single unit and single propeller design for ease of maintenance, and not surprisingly any later troubleshooting. A single unit and single screw design has also proved over time to have a longer life span than double or even quad screws.

These engines are built in 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 cylinder configurations. All the engines are straight or 'inline'. The diameter of each cylinder is 3 foot 2 inches with a stroke of 8 foot 2 inches. The 12 cylinder version weighs in at 2000 metric tons and delivers 90,000 Horse Power at 100 Revs per minute, with best fuel economy at 53,244 HP at 90 Rpm.When I mention economy, the 14 cylinder engine for example with a displacement of 25,480 Litres ( 1.56 million cubic inches ) burns up 1,660 gallons of crude ('bunker') oil every hour.

The Mathematical calculation : 1,660 gallons/per hour = 39.5 barrels of crude oil/used per hour = $2,844. These figures are worked out from the basis of crude oil @ $72 a barrel*.$2,844 every hour the engine runs or 27.6 Gallons which is $46.00 every minute or 76 cents a second ! That is of course if the ships buy oil at trade price...if not then these figures are the absolute minimum.( * at time of publishing )

In one of the pictures a worker at the plant is finalising work on the cylinder block. This image shows the piston sleeves. The worker could quite easily have a nap inside one of the bores and no one would notice !

Below are the pistons that will soon be fitted into the engine. Unlike normal car sized pistons these 3 foot diameter pistons incorporate lots of holes and it is through these holes that oil is injected through valves to keep all the working parts at a maximum low wear tolerance. Despite the colossal amounts of power output produced by these engines, surprisingly low wear rates have actually been recorded. Cylinder liner wear for example is only about 0.03 mm down for every 1000 hours of engine use.It must be remembered here that these engines work at about 20 times slower than a normal 2.0 Litre car engine and this is a major contributor to the life of the engine.

The images depicts the 300 ton crankshaft of the 10 cylinder engine. You may notice here that there are steps on the wall of the casing to climb down into the engines sump !

The crankshaft shell bearings are being fitted into the engine block. They are lowered into place by a crane and guided in by two workers and a supervisor. They keep all surfaces of the engine clean at this stage as any grit or dirt could later add wear to the engine or worse destroy it, so the workers are wearing special cloth overshoes so as not to leave any abrasions on the fine working surfaces. Also you may notice that sheeting is covering the rest of the engines crankcase bearing housing to keep the dust off. These engines cost many millions upon millions of dollars; in fact, more than the ship itself that they are installed into.

100,000 HP was actually achieved on a test bed in the workshop with the 14 cylinder model, running the engine flat out at just under 102 RPM. 102 Rpm may sound slow compared to a normal sized car engine that operates at about 2-4000 rpm, but when an engine is as big as this then fast engine revolutions are made obsolete by the sheer power output.

Lesson 38: Line Handling - Docking

Handling Lines

Lines assist in coming alongside or clearing a wharf. Before a ship comes alongside, the required lines with eye splices in the ends should be led outboard through the chocks, up and over the lifelines and/or rails. Heaving lines (light lines with weighted ends) are used on larger vessels to carry heavier lines to the wharf. With small boats, there is rarely any need to use a heaving line. Generally, a seaman can either step ashore with the mooring line or throw it the short distance required. Heaving lines should be made fast near the splice--not at the end of the bight where they may become jammed when the eye is placed over the bollard. Heaving lines should be passed ashore as soon as possible.

Dipping the Eye

If two bights or eye splices are to be placed over the same bollard, the second one must be led up through the eye of the first and then placed over the bollard. This makes it possible for either line to be cast off independently of the other and is called dipping the eye.
èStopping Off a Mooring Line

When a mooring line is taut, it is stopped off with a stopper line. The stopper line is secured to the bitts and applied to the mooring line with a half hitch and three or four turns taken in a direction opposite to the one in which the hitch is taken. When the stopper takes the strain, the turns are thrown off the mooring line and it is made fast to the bitts.
èDocking Single Screw Vessels

In securing alongside a wharf, attention must be paid to the tide. When securing at high water, enough slack must be left in the lines to ensure that at low tide they will not part, carry away bollards, or, in extreme cases, list the ship to a dangerous degree or capsize a small vessel.
Stopping Off a Mooring Line

Making Landings

Wharves and piers may be built on piles that allow a fairly free flow of water under them and in the slips between them. Their underwater construction may be solid, in which case there will be no current inside the slips, but eddies may whirl around them. Warehouses or other buildings may be built on piles, which vary the effect of the wind on the upper works of a vessel when making a landing.

Making a landing is more dangerous when the wind and current are at right angles to the wharf than when blowing or running along its face. In coming alongside, as in all ship handling, the wind and current should be observed and if possible, used as an advantage.

Making a landing usually involves backing down. For this reason, procedures for landing port-side-to differ from those for a starboard-side-to landing. Let us first consider a port-side-to landing.

Port-Side-To Landing

Making a port-side-to landing is easier than a starboard-side-to landing because of the factors already discussed. With no wind, tide, or current to contend with, the approach normally should be at an angle of about 20° with the pier. The boat should be headed for a spot slightly forward of the position where you intend to stop. Several feet from that point (to allow for advance), put your rudder to starboard-to, bring your boat parallel to the pier, and simultaneously begin backing. Quickly throw the bow line over. Then, with the line around a cleat to hold the bow in, you can back down until the stern is forced in against the pier.

If wind and current are setting the boat off the pier, make the approach at a greater angle and speed. The turn is made closer to the pier. In this situation, it is easier to get the stern alongside by using hard right rudder, kicking ahead, and using the bow line as a spring line. To allow the stern to swing in to the pier, the line must not be snubbed too short.

If wind or current is setting the boat down on the pier, make the approach at about the same angle as when being set off the pier. Speed should be about the same or slightly less than when there is no wind or current. The turn must begin farther from the pier because the advance is greater. In this circumstance, the stern can be brought alongside by either of the methods described, or the centerline of the boat can be brought parallel to the pier and the boat will drift down alongside.

Starboard-Side-To Landing

Making a starboard-side-to landing is a bit more difficult than a landing-to port. The angle of approach should always approximate that of a port-side-to landing. Speed however, should be slower to avoid having to back down fast to kill headway, with the resultant swing of the stern to port. Use a spring line when working the stern in alongside the pier. Get the line over, use hard left rudder, and kick ahead. If you cannot use a spring line, time your turn so that when alongside the spot where you intend to swing, your bow is swinging out and your stern is swinging in. When it looks as though the stern will make contact, back down; as you lose way, shift to hard right rudder.

Making Use of the Current

If there is a fairly strong current from ahead, get the bow line to the pier, and the current will bring the boat alongside as shown in View 1 below. If the current is from aft, the same result can be achieved by securing the boat with the stern fast as shown in View 2 below. Care must be exercised during the approach because an oncoming following current decreases rudder efficiency, and steering may be slightly erratic.
Making Use of the Current

Tying Up to a Pier (Heavy Weather Procedures)

If heavy winds are forecast (less than 50 knots), make sure storm lines are out fore and aft and additional breast lines are set. The greatest damage to the ship will result from the ship banging against the pier or other nested ships. Make sure all lines are properly set and that adequate fenders are rigged between the ships nested alongside.

Getting Away from a Pier

As when coming alongside, procedures for getting underway depend upon which side of the pier the boat is located, as well as the state of current, wind, and so on.


The easiest way to get underway, when starboard-side-to a pier, is to cast off the stern first, hold the bow line, give the boat hard left rudder, and begin backing. When the stern is clear of the pier and any boat or other object astern, cast off the bow line and back out of the slip.


The easiest way to clear a port-side-to landing is to use the bow line as a spring line. Cast off the stern line, give the boat left full rudder, and kick ahead until the stern is well clear. Then cast off the spring line and back out of the slip.

Lesson 37: Twin Screw Vessels and Bank Effects

Turning in a Limited Space

Single-screw vessels can be turned easily in restricted waters. To start the swing, the engine speed is set at full ahead and the rudder is put full right; then the engine is reversed to full astern until way is lost. When way is lost, the rudder is shifted; after sternway has started, the rudder is again shifted and the engine put full ahead. This procedure is repeated until the vessel is on the desired heading. This maneuver makes use of the tendency of right-handed propellers to back to port. In strong winds, it is wise to turn in such a way that the tendency to back into the wind can be used to increase the turn.

A twin-screw vessel with a single rudder can be turned by going ahead on one engine and astern on the other, using the rudder only when headway or sternway has been gained. When the vessel is fitted with twin rudders that are directly behind the propellers, the rudder is placed hard over in the direction of the turn before the maneuver is begun and one engine is backed at the speed necessary to prevent headway.

Twin Screw Vessels

The twin-screw vessel has two propellers -- one on each side of the centerline. These propellers are maneuvered by separate throttle controls. Generally the propellers are outturning; that is, the starboard propeller is right-handed and the port, left-handed. This balances the sidewise pressure of the propellers and makes it possible to keep the ship on a straight course with no rudder. Discounting outside influences, the twin-screw vessel backs with equal facility to port or starboard.

The various forces affecting the action of the single-screw ship are still present, but normally a twin-screw vessel is not affected by these forces as much as a single-screw vessel. This is because the forces from one screw balance the forces from the other screw.

One powerful force is the momentum of the ship, ahead or astern, acting through the center of gravity. When a twin-screw ship is going ahead and one screw is backed, two opposing forces are set in motion; namely, the force of the backing screw acting in one direction and the weight of the ship acting in the opposite direction. This is in addition to the forces from the action of the pressure on the rudder if it is put over.

Bank Suction and Bank Cushion

Bank suction involves the tendency of a vessel to veer toward the bank as it displaces the water along the shore. The opposite affect, known as bank cushion is often encountered at slower speed when the bow wave bounces off of the shore and back against the vessel. The effects of these phenomena are compounded the nearer the vessel is to the shoreline and varies with speed.

Mooring Lines

The lines used to secure the ship to a wharf or to another ship are called "mooring lines." They must be as light as possible for easy handling and, at the same time, be strong enough to take considerable strain when coming alongside and holding a ship in place. Nylon line (about 1” in diameter) is the customary cordage for mooring lines on small passenger and commercial vessels. Figure shows the locations and names of the lines. Lines should be neatly coiled or arranged to prevent fouling, to eliminate hazards, and to keep the working area clear.

Lesson 36: Boat Handling

Degrees of Vessel Motion (Freedom)

A vessel on water has the following six (6) motions or degrees of freedom while underway: roll, pitch, heave, yaw, sway, and surge.

Forces Affecting Boat Handling

Before attempting to handle a boat, it is important to understand the forces that affect a boat under various conditions. A watercraft operator who thoroughly understands these forces can use them to maneuver his boat. Therefore, he will not have to fall back on the often painful, trial-and-error method of learning boat handling. The following vessel characteristics influence the control of single-screw boats having right-hand propellers.

Vessel Design

The design of a ship includes the size and shape of the hull, draft, trim, weight, and amount of superstructure. Ships with shallow draft, low superstructure, and slim design normally handle more easily than ships with high superstructure, deep draft, and wide beam because they are less affected by wind and current and respond more rapidly to the rudder.


Each phase of motive force as it reacts on the vessel has its own peculiarities. No set of rules can be devised to cover all types. Every vessel has its own power characteristics, which the operator must learn to determine their effect upon handling of the vessel.

Propeller Action

A propeller draws its supply of water from every direction forward and around the blades, forcing it in a powerful stream toward the stern. This moving current which provides the power for propulsion is called "screw current." The water flowing into the propeller is called "suction screw current," that being ejected is called "discharge current." The below illustration shows this water-pressure effect of the suction current vaporizing off the tips of the blades and spiraling back in a helical pattern. The factors that affect propeller action are:

The pitch of a propeller is the distance the propeller would advance in one revolution if the water was a solid medium.


The difference between the speed of the ship and the speed of the propeller is known as the "slip". Slip is caused by the yield of the water against the propeller thrust. In other words, it is the percentage of distance lost because water is a yielding substance.


When the blade-tip speed is excessive for the size and shape of the propeller, the vessel rides high in the water. There is also an unequal pressure on the lower and upper blade surfaces. This condition produces cavities or bubbles around the propeller known as "cavitation." The result is an increase in revolutions per minute without an equivalent increase in thrust. This results in loss of efficiency. When cavitation is fully developed, it limits a vessel’s speed regardless of the available engine power.

Rudder Action

The rudder acts the same on a large vessel as on a small craft. The rudder is placed directly behind the propeller to use the powerful discharge current to turn the boat. Moving the rudder to the right deflects the discharge current to the right, which forces the stern to the left. This action is reversed when the left rudder is applied. At very slow propeller speed and with very little way on, there may not be enough control over a boat to maneuver it, especially if other forces are acting upon it at the same time. When this condition prevails, the propeller may be speeded up enough to give it a more powerful thrust against the rudder. Using sudden thrusts of power to kick (move) the stern in this manner is one of the fundamental principles of vessel handling. A vessel can often be turned in twice its length by kicking the stern.

Pivot Point

The pivot point for a power driven vessel is about one-third of the vessel’s length from the bow when going ahead and between one-quarter and one-third the vessel’s length from the stern when going astern.

Other Factors Affecting Control

Wind, tidal, ocean currents (waves or sea), and depth of water must be considered when handling a vessel. Shallow water particularly affects deep draft vessels because of the cushion effect similar to that encountered when navigating in narrow channels.

èBoat Handling Characteristics

Characteristics or factors, such as the power, propeller, rudder, and design of a ship affect handling in various ways. For illustrating the effects of these factors, it will be assumed that the sea is calm, there is neither wind nor current, and the ship has a right-handed propeller.

Single Screw Vessels

The single-screw vessel has only one propeller. The operation of this vessel is described below.

With the ship and propeller going forward and the rudder amidships, the ship tends to move on a straight course. The sidewise pressure of the propeller is offset by the canting of the engine and shaft. When the rudder is put over (either to the right or left) the water through which the ship is moving strikes the rudder face, forcing the stern in the opposite direction. At the same time, discharge current strikes the rudder face and pushes the stern over farther. As a result of these forces, the bow moves in the direction in which the rudder has been thrown.

Vessel With Sternway, Propeller Backing

When backing, the sidewise pressure is opposite to that exerted when the ship is moving forward. The discharge current from the propeller reacts against the hull. This current is rotary; therefore, when the propeller is backing, the current strikes the hull high on the starboard side and low on the port side. This current exerts a greater force on the starboard side and tends to throw the stern of the vessel to port.

With rudder amidships, the vessel will back to port from the force of the sidewise pressure and the discharge current. When the rudder is put over to starboard, the action of the suction current against the face of the rudder will tend to throw the stern to starboard. Unless the ship is making sternway, this force will not be strong enough to overcome the effect of the sidewise pressure and the discharge current, and the stern will back to port.

When the rudder is put over to port, the force of the suction current on the face of the rudder intensifies the effect of the sidewise pressure of the propeller and the discharge current and will force the stern rapidly to port. Because of these forces, all right-handed, single-screw vessels tend to back to port.

1863 Survey - Ship's Papers....

A few years ago - I was lucky to score this 1863 survey - ship's papers of the English-built barque Virginia 3. She was fitted with two-cylinder steam engine (60" bore and 3' 6" stroke)...iron hull. Click on the image for better detail...

STCW Codes.......

I received an email from Ms Norleen Schumer of this morning regarding the myriads of STCW codes....for those mariners out there who are confused (count me in)'s still confusing - Thanks Norleen!

VI, A-VI/3 = Advanced Firefighting
VI/1, A-VI/1 = Basic Safety Training
III/2, A-III/2 = Chief Engineer Officer
II/2, A-II-2 = Chief Mate
VI/1, A-VI/1 = Familiarization training (all seafarers)
V/1 = Familiarization training (tankers)
VI/2, A-VI/2 = Fast Rescue Boats (proficiency in)
VIII/1, A-VIII/1 = Fitness for duty (watchkeeping personnel)
IV, A-IV, II/1, II/3 = GMDSS (Radio Communication)
II/2, A-II/2, II/3- A-II/3 = Master (general qualifications)
VI/4, A-VI/4 = Medical First Aid/Medical Care (persons designated to provide)
II/1, A-II/1, II/3, A-II/3 = Officer in Charge, Navigational watch
III/1, A-III/1 = Officer in Charge, Engineering watch
III/4, A-III/4 = Ratings forming part of engineering watch (RFPEW)
II/4, A-II/4 = Ratings forming part of a navigational watch (RFPNW)
VI/2, A-VI/2 = Rescue craft (proficiency in)
VI/2, A-VI/2 = Survival craft (proficiency in)

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Lession 35: Anchoring.......

Anchors – Anchoring Techniques

The anchors that were in use for ship moorings up to the beginning of the last century consisted of a long, round iron shank, having two comparatively short, straight arms, or flukes. These were inclined to the shank on the anchors at an angle of about 40 degrees, and met it in a sharp point at the crown. The larger ship anchors had a bulky wooden stock which was built up of several pieces, the whole tapering outward to the ends, especially on the cable side. Since then there have been several modifications to anchor design, including the introduction of slightly bowed arms in order for more effective mooring and a change to more durable material.

● Danforth/Fortress: This type of anchor is one of the best anchors for holding in many different types of bottom composition. It weighs less than other anchors yet holds better due to its design. These anchors usually perform better when a short length of chain is used as a leader before the rope is attached. Yachtsmen's or Navy type Anchor: This style of anchor is best suited for soft bottoms. It is one of the oldest anchor designs and is considered by some to be obsolete. This type of anchor uses weight in its design to help it dig into the bottom.

● Grapnel Type: This style of anchor works much like a grappling hook. It takes hold of debris or rocks at the bottom. It is ineffective on muddy or sandy bottoms but works fairly well out at the jetties. Be prepared to loose this anchor though. Mushroom anchor: This is the choice of many fishermen.It is the easiest anchor to use and works well in many bottom situations. It is very affordable takes up little room to stow. It is an excellent choice for back bays and calmer waters. One drawback of the mushroom anchor is that it often looses its hold in windy or strong current conditions.

● Sea Anchor: This anchor doesn't use the bottom to hold the boat in position but rather uses the water. It looks like an oversized windsock and is used to control a boat's drift in high wind situations. The sea anchor is a handy device to have on board. It can be used to control your drift while drift fishing. It also can save your life in stormy conditions by holding your boats bow into the wind, when other anchoring methods fail.

Anchoring and Scope - Here are some basic anchoring guidelines:

Make sure that you use an anchor designed for the type of bottom primarily encountered in your boating area. Even with a small vessel, five or six feet of chain is desirable. Shackle the chain to the anchor. Put a thimble on the end of the anchor line and shackle that to the other end of the chain.

Chose your anchor line carefully. A line that is too heavy will actually cause problems because you’ll loose the "elasticity" that absorbs the shock and keeps the anchor well set. Pick your anchorage carefully. If there are other boats nearby, you will need to "guess" at their potential swing. A boat on a mooring will have very little swing but a vessel at anchor may have considerable "scope" out and may swing widely. A shallow draft boat will be more affected, usually by the wind whereas a deep draft boat will be more affected by the current. Put your bow into the wind or current (whichever is having the greatest affect on your boat), power up slowly to or just beyond where you want your anchor to lie (keep your anchor scope in mind) and check your forward motion with your reverse gear. Double check to ensure that the end of your anchor line is attached to something sturdy on the boat. Most experienced boaters have watched at least one anchor with line disappear over the bow because they forgot to secure the end. Don’t throw the anchor – it might get tangled. Release it by holding on to the chain or line, making sure that the chain and line are free, and dropping the anchor off the bow.

Once you see slack in the line, feed out the proper amount of scope as the boat drifts back. Average "recommended" scope is about 7 to 1 – that means that if you are in 10 feet of water you will want to pay-out about 70’ of line. You also want to take into consideration the distance between the water line and the bow cleat and also any depth increase because of tides. If the tide may come in another 2 feet and your bow cleat is 2 feet above the water, you are, effectively, in 14 feet of water and would need to pay out around 100’ of line. Up to 15 to 1 scope may be necessary in strong winds or currents.

Once the scope is out, secure the line (cleat and chock) and "back down" on the anchor keeping your bow into the wind/current. Idle speed is usually sufficient to make the anchor "bite" into the bottom and "set." Put the engine in neutral and get your "bearings." Find two points on each beam that form a natural "range" or line and a third either ahead or astern from which you may be able to judge distance. They can be other anchored boats, rocks, buoys or points on land. Sit there for a few minutes to make sure that none of the angles or distances to these points change. Any change would indicate that you are dragging and need to reset your anchor or pay out more scope – or both.

Chain Anchor Rode

The chain is marked according to the shot. After the first shot from the anchor, the detachable link is painted red and one link on each end is painted white. One turn of wire is placed on the outboard white links. After the second shot, the detachable link is painted red and two links on both sides of the detachable link are painted white. Two turns of wire are placed on the outboard white links. This marking is continued throughout until the second to last shot is reached. The second to last shot is entirely yellow. The last shot is entirely red. The bitter end should be made fast with a weak link to a cleat or pad-eye.

Glossary of Terms

Abrasion - frictional surface wear on the wires of a wire rope.
Back Stay - wire rope or strand guy used to support a boom or mast.
Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices - devices used to attach the load to the hoisting gear below the hook.
Birdcage - description of the appearance of a wire rope forced into compression. The outer strands form a cage and, at times, displace the core.
Block - a wood or metal case enclosing one or more sheaves provided with a hook, eye, and strap by which it is attached to an object. They are designed to provide mechanical assistance when moving large heavy objects. Blocks can be named by the number of sheaves, location, or function.
Block and Tackle - the complete unit of two or more blocks rove up with an adequate amount of rope.
Boom - a spar or pole projecting from a mast for supporting or guiding the weights to be lifted.
Bull Rope - a wire rope or fiber line used to heave, haul, or lift a load without benefit of the multiplying power of tackle blocks.
Cargo Gear - includes masts, stays, booms, winches, cranes, standing and running gear, slings, pallets, spreaders and similar loose gear, as well as vangs, preventers, and the tackle and structures forming part of the shipboard cargo gear used in connection with the loading and unloading of a vessel.
Come-a-Long - device for making a temporary grip on a wire rope.
Core - center component of a wire rope which the strands are laid around. It provides support for the outer strands.
Corrosion - chemical decomposition of metal wires in a rope, or rigging due to moisture, acids, alkalines or other destructive agents.
Corrugated - term used to describe the grooves of a sheave or drum after they have been worn down to a point where they show an impression of a wire rope.
Cover Wire - outer most layer of wires.
Crane - mechanical device intended for lifting or lowering a load and moving it horizontally, in which the hoisting mechanism is an integral part of the machine. A crane may be a fixed or mobile machine.
Derrick - a mechanical device intended for lifting, with or without a boom supported at its head by a topping lift from a mast, fixed A frame, or similar structure. The mast or equivalent member may or may not be supported by guys, or braces. The boom, where fitted, may or may not be controlled in the horizontal plane by guys (vangs).
Dog-Leg - permanent bend or kink in a wire rope, caused by improper use or handling.
End Fitting - the treatment at the end of wire rope, usually made by an eye or an attached fitting. Designed to be the permanent end on wire rope which connects to the load.
Eyebolt - a bolt having either a head looped to form a worked eye, or a solid head with a hole drilled through it forming a shackle eye.
Fall - part of the rope of a tackle to which power is applied.
Fitting - used to attach different components to each other and to the ship.
Gantry Crane - crane having a spanning framework, often set on tracks and used for loading/unloading containers.
Gooseneck - An iron swivel making up the fastening between a boom and a mast. It consists of a pintle and an eyebolt or clamp.
Guy - wire rope, fiber line, or chains that support booms, davits, etc. laterally.
Guy Pendants - pendants that connect the head of the boom with a guy tackle and serve to shorten the length of the guy tackle.
Fiber - smallest component of a Manila line.
Filled Sockets (poured sockets) - sockets that use molten metal (such as zinc) to secure them to the wire rope.
Heel Block - a block located at the foot of a boom and fastened to a mast or kingpost. One of the blocks through which the main cargo fall is reeved.
Hook - comes in two classes: plain hook and self mousing hook. The four basic parts of a hook are the eye, throat, mouth, and pea. A self mousing hook also has a spring loaded lever attached to it that cover the mouth of the hook.
House Falls - spans and supporting members, winches, blocks, and standing and running rigging forming part of a marine terminal and used with a vessel's cargo gear to load or unload by means of married falls.
Kink - irrepairable deformation in wire rope caused by a loop of rope being pulled down tight, greatly reducing the rope strength.
Lay - (a) "rope lay" signifies the direction of rotation of the wires and the strands in the rope. (b) "lay length" is the distance measured along the rope in which a strand makes one complete revolution around the rope axis.
Line - length of fiber or wire rope that transmit pulling forces.
Loose Gear - removable and replaceable components of equipment or devices which may be used with or as part of assembled material handling units for purposes such as making connections, changing line direction and multiplying mechanical advantage. Examples are shackles and snatch blocks.
Mousing - covering the mouth of a hook to prevent cargo from slipping off when the line holding it slacks.
Outriggers - extendable or fixed metal arms, attached to the mounting base of a crane, which rests on supports at the outer ends. Used to increase support by spreading the weight of the crane and load over a wider base.
Padeye - a fitting having an eye integral with a plate or base in order to distribute the strain over a greater area and to provide ample means of securing. The pad may have either a "worked" or a "shackle" eye, or more than one of either or both.
Peening - permanent distortion resulting from cold, plastic metal deformation of the outer wires of a wire rope.
Pendant - a hanging length of rope having a block or thimble secured to its free end.
Ply - component of synthetic line made of yarns twisted together. Plys are twisted together to form strands.
Preventers (guys and stays) - heavy wire rope used to supplement the regular guys and stays as a safety precaution when handling cargo.
Reeve - passing the bitter end of a rope or line through a block or series of blocks.
Rigging - generic term that is used to describe the ropes, lines, blocks, etc. that are used to support and move an object.
Runner - a tackle or part of a tackle consisting of a line rove through a single block and fixed at one end.
Running Rigging - rigging that is reeved through blocks or fairleads, used to move cargo gear or load.
Safe Working Load (SWL) - is the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself.
Schooner/Midship Guy - the tackle that spans the ends of two booms.
Sheave - a grooved pulley for wire rope.
Sling - a rope, chain, net, etc. used in hoisting freight.
Splice - joining of two sections of rope or line by interweaving of the strands.
Standing Rigging - rigging remaining permanently in position.
Strands - for Manila line, made of yarns twisted together. Three strands are laid up or twisted to form a line (plain laid line). For synthetic line, made of plys twisted together. Strands are laid up or twisted to form the line. For wire rope, strands are formed by twisting wires together. Strands are then laid around a core to form the wire rope (most wire rope consists of 6 strands wrapped around a core).
Swaged Fitting - fitting which wire rope can be inserted and then permanently attached by cold pressing (swaging) the shank that enclosed the rope.
Tackle - any combination of ropes and blocks that multiplies power.
Thimble - grooved metal fitting to protect the eye, or fastening loop of a wire rope.
Topping Lift - tackle that support the head of a boom.
Union Purchase - an arrangement in which a pair of booms is used in combination, the booms being fixed and the cargo runners coupled.
Valley Break - Break on the valley between strands on wire rope.
Whip - a tackle consisting of a fall rove through a single standing block (single whip) or of a fall secured at one end and rove through a single running and a single standing block (double whip).
Winch - a power driven spool for handling of loads by means of friction between fiber or wire rope and the spool.