Sunday, November 30, 2008

Boats and Propane Never Mix....

There is no back door on the water -

A man is missing and feared dead after a small boat caught fire on Lake Pend Oreille near Bayview, ID late Thursday morning. One of the men reported a fire from a portable propane heater forced the men into the water to escape the flames. In addition a man is missing.
Investigators reported the water temperature at 38 degrees at the time of the search. The depth of the lake was 500-700 feet in that area, which is too deep for public safety divers, according to the Kootenai County Sheriff's Office. One mariner had a life jacket on, but another couldn't put one on since the fire blocked access to the stored life jackets in the bow of the boat.

Food Giants in a Small World in a Too Small of Boat

I found this article rather interesting....

In the original Anaheim Disneyland it may be a Small World after all, but that world’s inhabitants are getting bigger and heavier almost by the day, so much so that some of the rides may have to be re-engineered. This has already been scheduled for the Small World ride, which will be closed for almost a year beginning in January for retooling.

The problem, quite simply, is that the flume that the boats ride in, and the boats themselves, were designed and built in 1963 on the assumption that the male adult riders would average 175 pounds and the women about 135, which they pretty much did at the time. Alas, those figures are as outdated today as the Rocket to the Moon ride.

The Small World ride now must accommodate adults who frequently weigh north of 200 pounds, which it often cannot do. Increasingly, overweighted boats get to certain points in the ride and bottom out, becoming stuck in the flume.

The ride monitors attempt to leave empty seats on many boats to compensate for the hefty, but this routinely antagonizes the hundreds of paying customers waiting in line. When a boat does bottom out, a long line of other boats backs up behind it, their passengers slowly going mad from listening to the ride’s theme song.

The ride monitors must then track down the stuck boat and attempt tactfully to help a rider or two to exit at one of the emergency platforms, which the riders in question do not always deal with graciously.

When the ride finally reopens, the flume will be an inch or so deeper and the boats more buoyant, thus allowing for several hundred more pounds of capacity. Other rides may also have to be shut down and reconfigured before all is made right; the Pinocchio, Alice In Wonderland and Pirates of The Caribbean rides in particular are prone to being stalled or annoyingly slowed down by overloaded cars.

But it seems somehow fitting that the first Disneyland attraction to actually succumb to “weight problems” would be the Small World ride. If for no other reason, just because of the irony.

Tidal Range....

It seems like mariners are confused about some terms when it comes to tide...I found this illustration which clearly shows the difference between Charted Depth (usually - but not always from Mean Lower Low Water - MLLW), Depth of Water, Reference Plane, and Height of Tide. Bridge clearances are charted from Mean High Water or MHW.

Saturday, November 29, 2008

Somali Pirates - The List of Hijacked Ships...

According to Reuters - here's the current list -

CAPT. STEPHANOS: Seized Sept. 21. The freighter was flying the Bahamas flag. It was carrying a cargo of coal and has 17 Filipinos, one Chinese and a Ukrainian aboard.
FAINA: Seized Sept. 24. The ship was carrying 33 T-72 tanks, grenade launchers and ammunition destined for Kenya's Mombasa port. Pirates have demanded $20 million in ransom.
AFRICAN SANDERLING: Seized Oct. 15. The Panama-flagged, Japanese-operated, and Korea-owned bulk carrier has 21 Filipino crew aboard.
STOLT STRENGTH: Seized Nov. 10. The chemical tanker with 23 Filipino crew aboard was hijacked by pirates in the Gulf of Aden. It was carrying 23,818 tonnes of oil products.
THE KARAGOL: Seized Nov. 12. The Turkish ship with 14 crew was hijacked off Yemen. It was transporting more than 4,000 tonnes of chemicals to the port of Bombay.
TIANYU 8: Seized Nov. 13/14. The Chinese fishing boat was reported seized off Kenya. The crew included 15 Chinese, one Taiwanese, one Japanese, three Filipinos and four Vietnamese.
CHEMSTAR VENUS: Seized Nov. 15. The combined chemical and oil tanker was travelling from Dumai, Indonesia to the Ukraine. It had 18 Filipino and five South Korean crew.
SIRIUS STAR: Seized Nov. 15. The Saudi supertanker, the biggest ship ever hijacked, held as much as 2 million barrels of oil. Captured off east Africa, it had 25 crew from Croatia, Britain, the Philippines, Poland and Saudi Arabia.
THE DELIGHT: Seized Nov. 18. The Hong Kong-flagged ship with 25 crew aboard is loaded with 36,000 tonnes of wheat bound for Iran. It was captured off the coast of Yemen.
ADINA: Seized last week. The Adina is a Yemeni-operated bulk carrier and carried seven crew, including three Somalis, two Yemenis and two Panamanians.
BISCAGLIA: Seized on Nov. 28. The Biscaglia is a Liberian-flagged chemical tanker with 30 crew on board, 25 Indians, three Britons and two Bangladeshis.

Another Boat Rolled on the Tillamook Bar

Another vessel was lost a few years ago while trying to cross this bar in rough happened again. Click on the link below to read the full story in the Seattle Times....

Wednesday, November 26, 2008

Where Boats Go To Die - Part III

From a few years ago - here again at the Ballard Yacht Club - the MV Red Arthur headed for the bottom of the canal until 20 or so SPD and SFP finest saved her from the Grimm Reaper...on the top pic - the bow was headed down .... she was later chopped into small, more manageable Arthur chunks (ala chain saw) and carted away...


Have a happy and enjoyable Thanksgiving.....John

Tuesday, November 25, 2008

TWIC and Lower Level Licenses

Again - more wisdom from Norleen at


Introduces bill to exempt low-risk mariners from needing a Transportation Worker Identification Credential if they already have a Coast Guard license Washington, DC - In an effort to protect fishing guides and charter captains against the financial impacts of excessive government regulations, Senators Norm Coleman and Susan Collins today introduced the Small Marine Business and Fishing Guide Relief Act. The legislation will exempt fishing guides, charter captains, and other small boat operators from needing an expensive Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) if they are not required to submit a vessel security plan to the Coast Guard. These mariners will still be required to have a Coast Guard license. A TWIC costs $132.50 for new applicants and is valid for five years. Additionally, the legislation calls for a report to examine the feasibility of verifying the small boat operators who have already purchased a TWIC and who will not need a card if this legislation is signed into law. Once the report is complete, refunds or credits towards license renewals could be issued by Congress or the TSA. Similar legislation has also passed in the House as part of the Coast Guard Reauthorization Act.“The tourism and fishing industries are crucial to Maine’s economy,” said Sen. Collins. “Many small businesses are already struggling during these lean economic times because of high fuel prices. In addition, higher energy prices have made it difficult for many tourists to afford charter tours of Maine’s coastal areas this summer, causing more hardship on the industry. I have heard from many individuals that they simply cannot afford an additional $132 identification card for each of their employees.”“While the TWIC program is an important tool to ensure the safety of our nation’s ports, it places an unnecessary financial burden on Minnesota’s fishing guides and small boat operators,” said Coleman. “This an issue that was brought to my attention last summer when fishing guides from Rainy River and Lake of the Woods told me that it posed an additional burden on their ability to maintain their bottom line. These guides already go through a substantial background check and pay a minimum of $140 for their Coast Guard licenses. Given these factors, it doesn’t make sense to ask them to pay an additional fee - especially with the recent downturn in the economy and the rising cost of gas.”Under current law, any individual with a Coast Guard-issued license or document will be required to also purchase a TWIC card by April 2009. The Department of Homeland Security indicated legislation would be needed to address this issue.“While the TWIC program will play a critical role in our nation’s maritime security by limiting access to secure areas of ports and large vessels, requiring charter boat captains who do not need unescorted access to these areas to obtain a TWIC is a costly and unnecessary government regulation,” said Sen. Collins.“We need to make sure our local fishing guides and other small marine operators are not being subjected to excessive government regulation and this legislation will provide that relief,” added Coleman. “Common sense tells us that a fishing dock on Lake of the Woods, for example, is vastly different from a major commercial port receiving cargo containers. And recognizing that some folks who already purchased a TWIC may not need it once this legislation passes, the bill also asks the Department of Homeland Security to look at the feasibility of locating these mariners so a refund or credit could be provided down the road.”The TWIC program was established by Congress through the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) and is administered by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and U.S. Coast Guard. TWICs are tamper-resistant biometric credentials for workers who require unescorted access to secure areas of ports, vessels, outer continental shelf facilities and all credentialed merchant mariners. It is anticipated that more than 750,000 workers including longshoremen, truckers, port employees and others will be required to obtain a TWIC. To obtain a TWIC, an individual must provide biographic and biometric information such as fingerprints, sit for a digital photograph, and successfully pass a security threat assessment conducted by TSA.

Have An Orange Turkey-Day

From my friend Norleen Schumer over at -

"Just in case you did not receive this by any other means, and you are planning to travel during the Holidays, please go to this website and read the article from DHS concerning the new "threat level advisory".

Have a wonderful Thanksgiving...."

Zenith Rainbow....

What watch has a fractional masthead sail boat on its caseback? A Zenith El Primero Rainbow Chronograph....

Zenith Watch was born to a 22 year old named Georges Favre-Jacot. He was one of the first to understand the importance of the inter-changeability of parts for rationalising production, thereby improving precision and reliability of mechanical watches.

He grouped together all the different areas and know-how that make up watch making. Thus, one of the very first true Swiss manufacturing companies was born.

By the time Jacot retired in 1929, Zenith Watches had made watch history, winning grand prix medals for timekeeping precision at international expositions in Geneva, Paris, Barcelona, and Neuchatel. In 1969, Zenith won renown for introducing the world's first automatic chronograph movement, the El Primero -- which was the movement for the R**** Daytona for years.

Me First Big Boat.....1978 Bayliner Saratoga

This is a sistership to the unit that I owned - I was "impressed" (at the time) to have the command of a 25 foot cruiser - during my ownership of the MV Squid Roe - I left no broken boat or people parts in the water...

Monday, November 24, 2008

Ghost Boat ?

Whew....I was going through some old survey pictures and came across this old piece of work from several years ago. I surveyed this boat for a guy who had purchased this old Monk from the Port after the fellow who owned it assumed boat temperature aboard her one fateful day. He apparently did so on the berth which was over the diesel heater .... when I was removing the plywood berth base ... a breeze blew the cabin ... all too weird...

Sunday, November 23, 2008

Seattle PME

The big Seattle PME has come and gone - with the help of Norleen Schumer ( it was a great session on "Trends in Coast Guard Licensing" - it had a fairly good turn out - good questions - lots of talk about TWIC - thanks Jack for being there.

Will there be a Part III of this series of marginal maritime advice at PME? - stay tuned.

Thursday, November 20, 2008

Survey Observations.....

The following Observations and or Non-Standard Conditions were noted at the time of survey:

The vessel has been well maintained and very presentable with the machinery space generally accessible and clean. The vessel was found to be currently undergoing major restoration and refit.

Vessel was found to be in very good condition. Hull top-sides, foredeck, and interior appear to be good condition and structurally sound (given the survey limitations as mentioned herein) with no signs of grounding or other damage and or structural failure except as follows.

- The undersigned wishes to disclose that USCG NVIC 8-95 was used as guidance in the structural inspection of this vessel.

- The vessel’s underbody and underwater hardware were not inspected. No exterior hull fasteners were opened up or inspected for serviceability and or alloy breakdown.

- It was reported that the vessel’s hull planking (5/4 cedar) was completely refastened (original #10 fasteners replaced with #12 sized bronze wood screws) in 2004. It’s understood that all hull seams were re-caulked during this haul out.

- Interior structural members (bent white oak and other wood species) are secured with a mixture of bronze and galvanized steel fastenings. In some place, most notably in lower bilge area, these fasteners are showing minor to moderate rusting and should be inspected and replaced as required as part of the vessel’s regular maintenance program.

- The vessel’s keel bolts, where accessible, were visually inspected and hammer punched – filed to observe the condition of the underlying material which visually appears to be serviceable. All keel bolts should be inspected and replaced as required as part of the vessel’s regular maintenance program.

- Visually observable corroded bronze transom platform knee fastener (?) found just to starboard of the vessel’s center line at the stern just aft of the rudder stock. It would appear that a potential cause of the fastener’s wastage might be due to a mixture of dis-similar metal fasteners found in this area of the vessel. This fastening\ should be replaced with a like marine-grade fastener. In addition, further investigations should be made to reduce future alloy breakdown of all fasteners in this area of the vessel’s structure.

- It should be noted that at a floor timber amidships – a slight amount of movement between the faying surfaces of the top of the keel structure and floor timber was observed – the undersigned suggests that the securing keel bolt be thoroughly examined during the vessel’s next scheduled haul out. In addition, two (2) (amidships) athwart intermediate frame straps (between floor timbers) have become (vertically) detached from the keel as a result of wasted steel fasteners and should be reattached to prevent movement – leakage at the garboard seam – see Recommendation made herein. The undersigned cautions that care should be taken in the refastening of these strap or bridge frames so not to induce cracking and or structural damage.

- The condition of existing steel fasteners in the engine foundation – engine bearers should be closely examined with any and all rusted, non-serviceable and or damaged fasteners replaced with marine-grade fasteners of size and specification appropriate for intended service.

- It was observed by the undersigned that localized galvanic current activity in the vessel’s interior wood structure(s) (evidenced by the production of sodium hydroxide on damaged wood fibers - when you have dis-similar metals in wet wood – a galvanic cell is established. When, from various reasons, the current potential reaches 300 – 400mv, the galvanic current creates alkaline substances in the wood which breaks down the lignin (organic polymer or glue) which keeps the fibers bonded together) at the floor timbers (viz., at the upper most surface of those affected floor timbers at the and radiating from bolt head) and other interior hull structural members. The undersigned advised ownership to clean affected areas with a wire brush - vacuum clean and treat with white vinegar. In addition, penetrating epoxy could be applied as well to stabilize affected area(s). All wood structures should be regularly inspected for rot fungi and or alkaline corrosion damage (excessive galvanic current activity).

Wednesday, November 19, 2008


Looks like Somalia's pirates are building high end houses, cruising in big buck cars, marrying hot gals — even hiring caterers to prepare Western-style food for their hostages... in an impoverished country where every public institution has crumbled, the pirates have become heroes because they are the only real business in town.

Hijacked Tanker Update

According to Voice Of America:

The head of the East African Seafarers' Association in Mombasa, Kenya, Andrew Mwangura, says negotiations for the release of the $140 million oil tanker and its multi-national crew of 25 have begun. He says he expects the pirates to demand a far higher ransom for the release of the vessel than the $1.2 million the pirates have previously demanded from ship owners. "We are informed that they are already in touch with the ship owner but we do not know who far they [negotiations] have gone," said Mwangura.

To read the complete article -

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

A Diatribe....

I received this email from a reader...please let me know if you can sort out the meaning of all of this....and even if it's maritime related

"filled and broke the balcony was the great President of whom the others When that Baal blocked the heavens he had no hymns from us cruelty, revolted him always. But it is not to acclaim his virtues that we an anarchist yourself. If we turned and fought these fellows, the whole town "Get on," said Dr. Bull.

entertaining five children to tea.

talk to Dr. Bull about grass?"

martyred. Think of the thought trodden into the dust. . . . Give man a When he came down very coolly to the field of honour, no one could have policy,' and 'Virtue is its own reward'? There was not a word in Comrade passed over the sky, the wine had the chilly gleam of yellow diamonds. on the ground beside the other two. slaveries and rewards of it. It gives the love of God as the only aim of pocket the note from Buttons proving his election, and put it before that the stations rose old wars, until the floods of scarlet poppies seemed the PZ3.D740N5, is the authoritative one now. We have not violated the author's

What's yours?"

drawing a long breath as the car slowed down again. Bull turned to the new detective who had led their flight, and permitted

dinners to the General Staff and everything, but that didn't seem to work.
over and over again in time to the ticking of his watch. The Secretary screamed out suddenly like a woman.

you look into my eyes? Do you not feel it, as a certain special chill,
perish; it is the Law.' Well, well, it seems majors don't do this. I was
carriages were; it was enough for them to know that they were carriages, and took his hat and stick and strolled down the stair into the shop below.
restored my humanity, for such is the nature of your kind. I did it to enjoy
you no reason for it. I will call it a command. Call it a mad command, but
After an instant's pause the new man called Ratcliffe said with gloomy
"Hah! There's the next convoy. I must go."
Who countest the steps of the sun;
"The question is that Comrade Syme be elected to the post of Thursday to have a fine close suit with knee-breeches such as that which was worn by "The attack. It's to-morrow at three in the morning; instructions are ""

$100 Million Oil Tanker Hijacked

According to the AP - a Saudi owned oil supertanker MV Sirius Star was hijacked over the weekend by Somali prirates - the crew is still aboard. The vessel has about $100 million of crude oil aboard as well.

Monday, November 17, 2008

Back to the Past....El Toro II

The sinking of the El Toro II is a famous case of where a CG inspected wood passenger vessel went down due to wasted hull fasteners....the picture above is of the El Toro after she was raised...just look at the fastener stains on the topsides...and even with all this evidence it was still allowed to carry passengers.

Mr William Anderson

It is with considerable regret that I must report that Will Anderson has lost his long battle with cancer.

Will's belief in Zenith pushed me to develop our AB and M200 license training courses.

He will be sadly missed.

Read Will's story in today's Seattle Times -

Sunday, November 16, 2008

Lucky, Lucky, Lucky....

This is a story of a boat called Lucky.

In some sense – but in another way – she isn't.

Here in Ballard – where boats go to die – Lucky was once an active resident – churning her way up and down Puget Sound to her owner's delight. Then the motor went south and then she sat – her owner abandoned her here at the Ballard Yacht Club. After about a year and half – the “For Sale” sign went up with no takers. Eventually a decision was made to make room for another victim by moving Lucky over to the public dock on 14th Avenue NW – where she would somehow how magically appear with no apparent owner or crew – thus hopefully becoming someone else's problem child. The folks here in Seattle aren't that dumb – the bread crumb trail was still hot and soon Lucky was 'returned' back to us - here at the Ballard Yacht Club.

After all of this -someone penciled in the short – but certainly accurate prefix 'Un'.

Is Un Lucky to be back where boats go to die or are we – the inmates here at the Ballard Yacht Club to have this loaf back in our failed and dismal lives.

Friday, November 14, 2008

Freedom of Navigation...

The Freedom of Navigation Principle

During the seventeenth century, at the time when international maritime law as we know it was being formulated, a dispute between the adherents of Mare clausum - most importantly the Englishman Selder - and those of Mare liberum, forcefully upheld by the Dutchman Grotius, finally ended in victory for the latter. The outcome was to have important consequences for maritime transport in the centuries that followed.

The principle espoused by Grotius informs the main tenets of the commercial and military (and, in times gone by, colonial) systems, which are primarily based on the idea that navigation consists of states being able to make use of the seas for their purposes. In international maritime law, this concept of navigation has been translated into a delineation of maritime zones in order to resolve the fundamental conflict of interests between maritime powers and coastal states. As a criterion, this is generally accepted, though there may be disagreement over boundaries. The continuation of this form of maritime dominion from 1600 until the present day has led, on the one hand, to the emergence and consolidation of the absolute and inviolable principle of freedom of the high seas and, on the other, to the sovereignty of coastal states over the adjacent zones, except in cases of hot pursuit or innocent passage.

The codification of international maritime law, which began during the second half of the last century, has largely upheld the precepts of customary law in regulating dominion over the sea. As part of this continuing process, the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea opened in Montego Bay in 1982, at a time when maritime interests were in a state of considerable flux. This was due both to the emergence of new states following decolonization and to new ways of exploiting the sea and its biological and mineral resources. The clash of interests was therefore no longer between maritime and coastal states, but between industrialized and non-industrialized countries, themselves subdivided into countries with highly developed coastal areas and those with restricted access to the sea. The newly established countries not yet equipped with effective navies, in trying to find outlets to the sea or seeking to exploit the marine resources over the widest possible offshore area, were not particularly disposed to uphold the inviolable principle of Mare liberum, which interfered with their ambitions to extend their economic zones out to sea. Nor did they have any particular interest in extending or maintaining the sovereign rights of the coastal states. In the search for new sources of wealth from the sea, the latter wished to delimit territorial waters on the basis of productiveness rather than extent. As a result, sovereign rights now have a more practical application, and this has altered what they stand for.

This new concept underlies the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, also known as the Montego Bay Convention, which was signed on 10 December 1982 and entered into force on 16 November 1994. By the end of 1995 the convention had been signed by 158 countries, including the European Community and 14 Community countries - the exception being the United Kingdom - but not the USA. It has been ratified by 82 countries. On 13 June 1996, only five Community countries had ratified. These were Germany, Greece, Italy, Austria and Sweden.

The Montego Bay Convention regulates the various uses of the sea, of which those related to the exploitation of biological and mineral resources are probably the most politically sensitive. With regard to freedom of navigation, the major difficulty is delimiting the territorial sea and contiguous zones.

International law in the seventeenth century fixed the limit at three nautical miles, according to the principle of usque ad arma ruant, in other words on the basis of the range, at the time, of a cannon-shot from the shore. It amounted to the recognition of military might as a criterion for defining sovereignty. This definition is still recognized by all states, though many have tried to extend their sovereignty. Nor was the Montego Bay Convention any more successful in eliciting agreement on extending territorial waters. Article 3 therefore contains the following compromise: that every state has the right to extend its own territorial sea to up to 12 nautical miles from the Baseline. This compromise is not watertight in so far as the rule cannot be imposed on states that were not party to the convention, among them the United States, and which are claiming freedom of navigation up to the three-mile limit.

The Contiguous Zone was introduced into international law through the 1958 Geneva Convention. Article 24 defines the contiguous zone as a zone of the high seas contiguous to its territorial sea, in which the coastal state may exercise the control necessary to prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations. Article 33 extended the contiguous zone from 12 to 24 miles, as a logical consequence of extending the territorial sea to the same distance. Inside the contiguous zone, the authorities of the coastal state have the power to ensure that there is no infringement of its laws, as mentioned above. Provision is made for punishing infringements of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea. In other words, inside this maritime zone, and within the limits indicated above, the laws of the coastal state override those of the flag state.

Outside the contiguous zone, and leaving aside the other maritime zones over which the coastal state has rights that do not interfere with navigation, there is the high sea, where certain activities may be carried out in accordance with customary international law and that laid down in the international conventions. In international law, therefore, the high sea has legal standing only as a place for carrying out subjective activities: it has never had an independent legal status. In other words, it is only through the activities carried out at sea, which are themselves regulated by laws, that the high sea has any legal standing.

As a result, the sea is exempt from territorial sovereignty, but not from legal sovereignty, because of the powers which states, through their national authorities, exercise over the activities carried out there by their own citizens. The fact that seafarers are citizens of a particular state overcomes the problem of territorial sovereignty, since the principle that all human activity is legally regulated can be applied to the high seas.

With regard to navigation, the notion that a ship belongs to a legal system is given practical form in the flag principle. According to this principle, ships are subject to the law of the state whose flag they fly. The process of registration enables ships to be identified. They are listed in a register which is held by the state in accordance with its own internal law. Registration invests in the state a responsibility for ensuring that ships obey its laws, which must be in keeping with international law. To this end, it can employ the services of its navy and naval auxiliaries. A state's jurisdiction over its ships has been defined as the power of policing on the high seas. This power can also be exercised in respect of ships registered in other countries either on the basis of customary law or under the relevant conventions (especially as regards fisheries), or in the context of a unilateral claim by a state to protect its own legitimate interests.

The right of recognition - warships can request any ship to identify itself - and the right of hot pursuit have been established by usage and partially codified and can be exercised, at least in contiguous zones. The conventions have also extended the right to exercise control where particular conditions or circumstances obtain, generally for the purposes of preventing or suppressing particularly unpleasant crimes. Finally, unilateral claims will usually be contested in the courts of the flag state. It is, however, becoming customary to extend the use of controls provided for in the international rules of war to certain internal disputes.

Thursday, November 13, 2008

Lost in Ballard....

At Zenith - we store our records at a super secret location here in Ballard...(it's a great program - the homeless sleep in the storage units) - about six months while in our storage unit just off Market Street - an older lady came by huffing and puffing and totally lost. I realize this is a big storage unit - but apparently she got lost and couldn't find the exit and had become lost for nearly two hours - wandering in circles amongst the 400 plus storage units just like at rat in maze. I helped her to the exit. Now - just the other day - the same thing happened again while I was in there - this time it was the pest control guy...what's next? Do I have to offer navigation classes for storage unit customers and visitors as well?

Thea Foss....

In the summer of 1889, Thea Foss, a recent immigrant and new bride from Norway, buys the rowboat that launches the Foss Launch Company. She is sitting on the porch of her houseboat on the Tacoma waterfront and buys the boat for five dollars from a fuming, disgruntled, failed fisherman. Thea's husband Andrew Foss, a carpenter, is up in the valley building a shed at the time. Before long, Thea sells this rowboat for $15 and buys two more boats from two more discouraged fishermen. Thea begins renting the boats for 50 cents a day. By the time Andrew returns from his shed-building job with $32, Thea has amassed $41. Thus begins the Foss Launch and Tug Company, now Foss Marine Company. This now Seattle-based tugboat and marine services firm employs 1,000 people and is (in 2003) the largest tugboat enterprise on the West Coast.

Text from Historylink

Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Holy Billy Mays...That's a Big Propeller....

A heavyweight propeller, acting as a signpost to SMM 2008, was lowered onto its base on Thursday 18 September. It will be placed in front of the Central Entrance to the New Hamburg Fair, Messeplatz 1 (Germany).

Weighing in at nearly 58 tons, it will put the 47,000 or so trade visitors in the mood for SMM 2008. This leading industry event, the 23rd shipbuilding, machinery & marine technology international trade fair Hamburg, features 1,950 exhibitors from 55 nations, showcasing the latest technologies and products for shipbuilding and marine equipment at the Hamburg Fair site from 23 to 26 September.This modern fixed-pitch propeller with 5 sickle-shaped blades was built in Waren, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, by Mecklenburger Metallguss GmbH (MMG), which is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of ship’s propellers and a supplier to shipyards around the globe. It is about in mid-range for MMG, with its diameter of 7.9 metres and weight of 57,760 Kg (2.2kg = 1 pound). After accomplishment of its mission as an SMM Eyecatcher, it will go into operation in a container ship having a capacity of 4,400 TEU (20-foot equivalent units). The ship is classified by Germanischer Lloyd and is being built at the South Korean shipyard Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd. (DSME). The main engine is a marine diesel type 8K90MC-C6 from MAN B&W, with an output of 36,540 KW to drive the propeller at 104 rpm. That is sufficient for an operating speed of 22.8 knots. In view of today’s fuel prices, shipowners attach more importance to fuel efficiency than to high maximum speed. The curving sickle shape of the five propeller blades is not a matter of design aesthetics, but is due to engineering considerations. The propeller skew, that is the dimension defining the blade arc geometry, is critical for vibration level caused by the propeller in the ship’s hull. More skew means less vibration.

The propeller is made of a special alloy, the main component of which is copper. Other elements such as nickel, iron, aluminium and manganese give the propeller the necessary properties such as high strength and elongation characteristics, and also resistance to seawater. Manufacture of propellers of this size may take about three months from the first drawing until they get their final polish. MMG can manufacture propellers with a finished weight of up to 140 tonnes and diameter 11.3 metres. That is enough for the largest container ships in service today. MMG has received numerous orders for propellers for 13,000 TEU container ships and for the new Post-Panamax class, said MMG Managing Director Manfred Urban, describing the company’s good order book. He added that MMG had received orders from Fincantieri, the leading cruise shipbuilder, for delivery of propellers for cruise vessels in construction for the well-known operator Carnival Cruise Line.

Ship’s propellers are naturally an important element in the chain of calculation, when trying to improve the fuel-efficiency of the large marine diesels – it is not just a question for the engine designers. At MMG the engineers have long since been working on new concepts, aimed at improving the efficiency of modern propellers, currently between 70 and 75%. “We are working on propeller shapes,” says Manfred Urban, “to improve efficiency and thus make a significant contribution to fuel savings. We are also optimising old propulsion concepts and optimising propulsion equipment so that it can still be profitably used.”These developments are possible thanks to modern calculation and simulation techniques. Designers have found, for example, that tanker propeller efficiency can be improved by reducing the number of blades, and that the well known disadvantages of a three-blade propeller can be minimised by optimising propeller geometries.

Worm Shoe?

What's worm shoe?

It's a sacrificial wooden plate fastened to the bottom of the keel which takes any abrasions or damage if the vessel is grounded or is it just a tasty bit of wood on a ship’s keel that diverts parasites from the rest of the vessel?

Monday, November 10, 2008

What's a Builder's Certificate...

A certificate issued by the vessel's builder that serves as the initial title document. Identifies the first owner and contains the vessel's specifications. Also known as "Certificate of Build" or "Builder's Certification". This certificate meets US Coast Guard requirements for initial documentation. Supersedes the older term known as "Master Carpenters Certificate" - so here's a Master Certificate for those who haven't seen one....

Who's Your Marine Surveyor.....

Here in the US - anybody can be a marine surveyor (SAMS and NAMS are accreditation societies)....but down-under - the dispensing of marginal maritime advise is regulated by the government...

From Queensland, Australia regs...


SECT 8 Marine surveyors--specific requirements

8.(1) A person who wants to be accredited as a marine surveyor must have--
(a) at least 10 years experience; or (b) at least 5 years experience and 1 of the following qualifications--

(i) a certificate as a class 1 or 2 marine engineer or master;
(ii) a degree in naval architecture;
(iii) a degree in marine engineering;
(iv) a diploma, associate diploma or certificate in naval architecture or shipbuilding;
(v) trade qualifications as a shipwright or boat builder; (vi) other educational, sea going or trade qualifications the person satisfies the chief executive are equivalent to, or better than, the qualifications mentioned in subparagraphs (i) to (v).

(2) A person who wants to be accredited as a marine surveyor for part of a ship must have--
(a) a trade qualification as an electrician; and (b) at least 2 years post qualification experience.
(3) In this section--
"experience" means appropriate experience with demonstrated competence in surveying ships, or parts of ships, of the category for which the accreditation is sought.

Saturday, November 8, 2008

Where Boats Go to Die: Part Two: There Yesterday - Gone Today....

Something is missing ... we had between 3" to 14" of rain during the past three days here in western Washington - so what do you get with heavy rains, open moorage, and little (if any) operating bilge pumps...this is where boats really go to die (follow the dock lines, floating blue tarp, and fenders into the water)...the way things work around here in Ballard...another boat will be parked over this one by week's end....

Friday, November 7, 2008

We Are Here Today to Join...

this man and woman in holy matrimony....The Rev. Captain on the beach in Maui just moments before getting the wedding ceremony underway...

A Few Interesting Words...

The following are the words of an editor of one of the region's best boating publications...we are all concerned where our industry is headed...

The recent Ft. Lauderdale Boat Show was its usual big production with fairly predictable results, with the same being true for the Annapolis Shows. The Shows were slightly smaller, the crowds were smaller yet deals were done and there were buyers out there. Yes, they were looking for deals but more importantly they were looking. The marine lenders were there with money to loan and there were plenty of new boats and new products introduced. Overall, there was a distinct air of cautious optimism both on the part of brokers and dealers as well as consumers. The simple message is that people still want to boat and of all the discretionary choices consumers have, they are not going to quit BOATING!

All Fetched Up....

Don't blame this program on me...I wasn't driving the thing....

Wednesday, November 5, 2008

An Old M100 Class Photo....

Oh my....from a 2004 M100 class from left to right - Capt Robert, the purveyor of marginal maritime advice, William, Capt Greg and Ms Lynne (of Lode Star Marine Survey)

Some Deck General - Safety Questions

The following questions are from the USCG's exam data base....

Marlinspike Study Questions:

1. Which type of line will stretch the most when under strain?

A Polypropylene
B Dacron
C Nylon
D Manila

2. Faking a line means to:

A arrange it on the deck in long parallel rows
B coil it down on the deck
C put a whipping on it
D stow it below

3. A fid is a:

A mallet used when splicing wire rope
B tapered steel pin used to separate wire rope
C sharp-pointed crowbar used to unlay wire rope
D tapered wooden pin used when splicing heavy rope

4. A knot in a line reduces the strength of line:

A If it isn’t a bowline
B Always
COnly when a bend is used
D Never

5. The “lay” of a line refers to:

A its normal location of stowage
B the direction of twist in the strands
C the manner in which it is coiled
D the manner in which it is rigged

6. A rope made up of a combination of wire and rope is known as:

A independent
B long lay
C preformed
D spring lay

7. Which material makes the strongest mooring line ?

A Dacron
B Manila
C Nylon
D Polyethylene

8. A fitting attached to an chain anchor rode which takes the load is called:

A a hook
B anchor rode fitting
C a rode grabber
D a devil’s claw

9. Right-laid line should be coiled:

A clockwise
B counterclockwise
Ceither clockwise or counterclockwise
D on a reel

10. An advantage of nylon rope over manila rope is that nylon rope:

A can be used in conjunction with wire or spring lay rope
B can be stored on decks exposed to sunlight
C can hold a load even when a considerable amount of yarns have been abraded
D gives audible warming of overstress whereas manila does not

11. When using natural-fiber rope, you should NEVER:

A dry the line before stowing it
B reverse turns on winches periodically to keep out kinks
C try to lubricate the line
D use chafing gear

12. The strongest of the natural fibers is:

A cotton
B hemp
C manila
D sisal

13. Which type of line would have the least resistance to mildew and rot?

A Manila
B Nylon
C Dacron
D Polypropylene

14. When taking a length of new manila rope from the coil, you should:

A mount the coil so that it will spool and unreel from the outside
B roll the coil along the deck and allow the rope to fall off the coil
C lay the coil on end with the inside end down, then pull up the inside end up through the middle of the coil
D lay the coil on end with the inside end up then unwind the rope from the outside of the coil

15. In order to help protect a natural fiber rope from rotting, the line must be:

A dried and stowed in a place with adequate ventilation
B stowed in a hot, moist compartment
C stowed on deck at all times
D stowed in any compartment

16. Nylon line can be dangerous because it:

A breaks down when wet
B kinks when wet
C is not elastic
D stretches

17. Which device is designed to automatically hold the load if the power should fail to an electric winch?

A Pneumatic brake
B Electromagnetic brake
C Hand brake
D Motor controller

18. A normal safe working load for nylon rope is:

A 10% of its breaking strain
B 40% of its breaking strain
C 50% of its breaking strain
D 66% of its breaking strain

19. What is an advantage of the 6X37 class of wire rope over the 6x19 class of wire rope of the same diameter?

A Greater flexibility
B More resistant to corrosion
C More resistant to elongation
D Lower weight per foot

20. Which type of line floats?

A Dacron
B Nylon
C Old Manila
D Polypropylene

21. What is the breaking stress of a 2½ -inch manila line?

A 3,600 lbs.
B 5,625 lbs.
C 8,575 lbs.
D 9,800 lbs.

22. What is the breaking stress a 4 inch manila line in long tons (2,240 pounds)?

A. 6.4
B. 7.4
C. 5.8
D. 8.0

23. Using a safety factor of six, determine the safe working load of a line with a breaking strength of 20,250 lbs.

A. 6,750
B. 3,375
C. 10,000
D. 121,500

24. A nylon line is rated at 15,000 lbs. breaking strain. Using a safety factor of 5, what is the safe working load (SWL)?

A 3,000 lbs.
B 5,000 lbs.
C 15,000 lbs.
D 65,000 lbs.

25. Stays are:

A running rigging leading fore and aft from the mast
B running rigging leading athwartships from the mast
C standing rigging leading fore and aft from the mast
D standing rigging from the cross trees to the masthead

26. The fitting that allows a cargo boom to move freely both laterally and vertically is called the:

A swivel
B Lizard
C spider band
D gooseneck

27. Raising the boom to its full upright position is:

A raising the boom
B preventing the guy
C topping the boom
D whipping the boom

28. The term “standing rigging” refers to:

A booms and kingposts
B guys and vangs
C stays and shrouds
D topping lifts and cargo runners

29. Galvanizing would be suitable for protecting wire rope which is used for:

A cargo runners
B stays
C topping lifts
D All the above

30. A common class of wire rope is the 6x19 class. What does the 19 represent?

A Number of wires in the inner core
B Number of strands per wire rope
C Tensile strength of the wire rope
D Number of wires per strand

31. The size of wire rope is determined by the:

A number of strands
B number if wires in each strand
C circumference
D diameter

32. The “carrick bend” is used to:

A add strength to a weak spot in a line
B join two hawsers
C be a stopper to transfer a line under strain
D join lines of different sizes

33. The knot used to join two lines of different diameter is a:
A square knot
B carrick bend
C becket bend
D sheepshank

34. A long splice in a line:

A is used in running rigging
B doubles the size of the line
C is only used on fiber rope
D is very weak

35. Which splice should you use in order to make a permanent loop in a line?

A Back Splice
B Eye splice
C Long splice
D Short splice

36. The strongest way to join the ends of two ropes is with a:

A back splice
B short splice
C square knot
D carrick bend

37. A “sheepshank” is used to:

A keep a line from fraying
B join two lines of unequal sizes
C stop off a line
D shorten a line

38. A “figure-eight” knot is used to:

A as a stopper
B shorten a line
C join lines of equal size
D keep a line from fraying

39. Polypropylene line is:

A Has the same strength as manila rope
B About 1.4 X stronger than manila rope
C About 2.0 X stronger than manila rope
D About 2.5 X stronger than manila rope

40. Dacron line:

A Is a trade name for manila rope made in China
B Is made from natural fibers
C will safety absorb surge loads
D stretches less than nylon rope

41. When passing a hawser to the dock you would first use what line?

A Throw line
B Heaving line
C Preventer
D Warp

42. The bitter end of a line is:

A The hauling part of a block and tackle
B The standing part of a line
C The end of a line
D An area of a line where the strands have been abraded

43. What is a figure eight knot used for?

A Allow a line to pay easy
B To prevent a line from pulling through a clove hitch
C Attaching a messenger line
D Joining line of unequal diameter

44. A Granny and a Square knot:

A Is the same knot
B Is not the same knot
C A square knot using small stuff
D A granny knot using large stuff

45. What is the correct formula to compute breaking strain of a nylon line?

A BS = circumference2 X 900
B BS = circumference2 X 900 X 2.5
C BS = circumference2 X 900 X 2.0
D BS = circumference2 X 900 X 1.4

46. A splice in a line reduces:

A Both the working and breaking strain by 10%
B The working strain by 10%
C The breaking strain by 10%
D None of the above

47. What is the working strain of a 3 inch nylon line?

A The same as a 3 inch manila line
B One half of the breaking strength
C The same as the breaking strength
D Ten-percent (10%) of the breaking strength

48. A braided line is about how much stronger than stranded line?

A None
B 5%
C 10%
D 20%

49. The usual method of arranging a line on deck so that it will run out easily without kinking or fouling is:
A.coiling the line
B.faking down the line
C. lemishing the line
D. racking the line

50. When a line is subject to wear where it pass through a mooring chock, it should be:

wormed, parceled, and served
wrapped with heavy packing tape
wrapped with chafing gear
wrapped in netting


1. C 26. D
2. A 27. C
3. D 28. C
4. B 29. B
5. B 30. D
6. D 31. D
7. C 32. B
8. D 33. C
9. A 34. A
10. C 35. B
11. C 36. B
12. C 37. D
13. A 38. A
14. C 39. B
15. A 40. D
16. D 41. B
17. B 42. C
18. A 43. B
19. A 44. B
20. D 45. B
21. B 46. A
22. A 47. D
23. B 48. D
24. A 49. B
25. C 50. C

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

A Bad Survey...

I was going through some old survey files and came across this piece of work from was probably the worst case of alloy breakdown I have ever seen...


The following Observations and or Non-Standard Conditions were noted at the time of survey:

The vessel has been reasonably well maintained with all accessible areas reasonably clean and presentable except for the area against and forward of the transom which was cluttered and inaccessible to a complete inspection.

Vessel’s hull and underbody was found to be in good condition. Hull top-sides, foredeck, and interior appear to be good condition with no signs of grounding or other damage and or structural failure except as follows.

Several hull planking fasteners were examined and found to be in marginal serviceable condition. Given this situation, a refastening plan should be contemplated.

At the vessel’s stem, the upper most section of the stem appears to have been replaced-repaired. A new piece has been landed atop of the original structure and re-enforced internally and externally. This area appears to be stable.

At the vessel’s stern, outboard of exhaust through hull fittings (port and starboard areas) and outboard of both rudder posts, sounding this area with light hammer action revealed a slight softness in the wood structure. The buyer has been made aware of this situation and will monitor. Since the interior area forward of the transom was clutter and inaccessible, a complete examination was prevented. The undersigned has determined that this observation pose no structural concern at the present time, but should be monitored and thoroughly examined during next scheduled haul out.

Additional wood softness and decay was found in the forward areas (interior and exterior) of the vessel where the house lands on the foredeck and in the cowl area over the forward windows. Previous repair efforts are indicated by the use of an epoxy-like material. The buyer has been made aware of this situation and will monitor. Repairs should be affected to stabilize the wood structures and restore proper cosmetic appearance.

Observed amidships starboard side, beneath cabin sole, one (1) frame heel slightly loose. Related fasteners should be removed, examined, and re-fitted.

The undersigned visually estimated the deadrise of the hull at the stern to be ≤ 7º and amidships between 15º to 20º.

The undersigned did not perform a mechanical survey. The propulsion drive units, engines, reduction gears, and bilge area under machinery were inspected and found to be generally free of oil, fuel, and or water leakage. Machinery, steering, and engine controls were inspected but NOT tested for proper operation. To prevent water leakage, a competent marine mechanic should be engaged to inspect and replace, as required, any and all packing, clamps, or hoses to prevent accidental flooding. A small amount of fresh water was found in bilge area in machinery space.

Underwater through-hull fittings and seacocks were inspected for proper operation, leakage, and wastage. Given the situation as discussed in Recommendations below, all metal through hull fittings and seacocks should be thoroughly examined for wastage and replaced as needed.

The fuel hoses supplying main engines were not clearly identified as USCG approved.

In the machinery space, all 12 volt storage batteries must be secured, contained, and covered to prevent accidental sparking as per ABYC recommendations and standard practices.

The chain rode shackle at the anchor was not properly moused.

The undersigned will trust the vessel’s owner will provide for adequate quantities of required Type III and Type IV USCG approved personal floatation plus Type IV devices along with Coast Guard approved visual distress and fire protection appliances as required in 33CFR 175.110 and NFPA 9.1-33CFR respectively.

The following Recommendations were made during survey:

1. FOUND: The vessel’s electrical wiring is materially below industry standards and practices as per ABYC for both the 12 volt DC and 120 volt AC systems. In addition, there have been some localized heating and spot fires caused by this situation. RECOMMEND: Disconnect vessel from all electrical sources. The vessel should be thoroughly examined and re-wired as needed before further operation by a qualified marine electrician.

2. FOUND: At the vessel’s underbody and stern area, there is ample evidence of uncontrolled galvanic corrosion. Both rudders, propeller shaft struts, and the existing starboard propeller showed signs of aggressive de-zincification. In addition, the port propeller was missing and the remaining shaft stub end indicated aggressive cervis corrosion. RECOMMEND: The underwater metal hardware mentioned above should be thoroughly examined and replaced as required. At the minimum, two new propellers and shafts should be installed. All underwater metal fittings and hardware should be protected by properly sized sacrificial underwater zinc anodes.

3. FOUND: Type B-1 dry chemical portable fire extinguisher in aft starboard cockpit area, pressure gauge indicated no pressure in the cylinder. RECOMMEND: This particular unit must be replaced. All other portable fire extinguishers should be inspected yearly and replaced as indicated.

4. FOUND: No overboard drainage of propane gas from cylinder locker-box to avoid accidental explosion. RECOMMEND: Provide adequate overboard drainage of propane locker.

Monday, November 3, 2008

Lesson 46: Radiotelephone


VHF and SSB Radiotelephone

The VHF (Very High Frequency) marine radio uses a FM (Frequency Modulated) signal band of 152 – 156 mHz (mega-Hertz) with switched or set frequencies (channels). All VHF radios used aboard boats are limited to a maximum of 25 watts of transmitting power. VHF radiotelephone distances are usually 10 -15 miles for ship-to-ship communications while ship-to-coast station is generally about 20 – 30 miles. When operating on VHF channel 13 (Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone) wattage is limited to 1 watt.

When operating at greater distances, SSB radiotelephone equipment is used. This type of equipment uses AM (Amplitude Modulated) with a maximum of 150 watts of transmitting power on the 2 to 4 kHz (kilo-Hertz) band. Typical daytime transmitting range is about: 100 miles, at dusk expect about 300 miles and over 600 miles at night.

Radio Licenses

The regulations requires most operators of commercial vessels to carry a radio or to have an individual license to operate VHF marine radios (with or without digital selective calling capability), or any type of radar.

Users of VHF marine radio equipped with digital selective calling will need to obtain a maritime mobile service identity (MMSI) number from the FCC. It is unlawful to use digital selective calling (VHF channel 70) without obtaining this identity.

Vessels required to be licensed:

Vessels that use MF/HF single side-band radio, satellite communications, or telegraphy,
Power Driven vessels over 65.6 feet/20 meters in length.
Vessels used for commercial purposes including:
Vessels documented for commercial use, including commercial fishing vessels.
CG inspected vessels carrying more than 6 passengers.
Towboats more than 25.7 feet/7.8 meters in length.
Vessels of more than 100 tons certified to carry at least 1 passenger.
Cargo ships over 300 tons.
Dredges –floating plants engaged in or near a channel or fairway.
Any vessel, including a recreational vessel, on an international voyage.

Radio Listening Watch

In general, any vessel equipped with a VHF marine radiotelephone (whether voluntarily or required to) must maintain a watch on channel 16 (156.800 MHz) whenever the radiotelephone is not being used to communicate.
In addition, every power-driven vessel of 20 meters or over in length or of 100 tons and upwards carrying one or more passengers for hire, or a towing vessel of 26 feet or over in length, as well, as every dredge and floating plant operating near a channel or fairway, must also maintain a watch on channel 13 (156.650 MHz) -- channel 67 (156.375 MHz) if operating on the lower Mississippi River-- ; while navigating on U.S. waters (which include the territorial sea, internal waters that are subject to tidal influence, and, those not subject to tidal influence but that are used or are determined to be capable of being used for substantial interstate or foreign commerce). Sequential monitoring techniques (scanners) alone cannot be used to meet this requirement; two radios (including portable radios, i.e. handhelds) or one radio with two receivers, are required. These vessels must also maintain a watch on the designated Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) frequency, in lieu of maintaining watch on channel 16, while transiting within a VTS area.

Radiotelephone operators must be able to understand and speak English. Radio logs are kept for one (1) year with the day starting and ending at 0000 (mid-night). Logs containing Distress entries must be kept for three (3) years. All entries must be corrected by the individual who made the original entry by striking out the incorrect entry, dating, and initialing.

Distress Call Procedures

Make sure radio is on
Select VHF Channel 16, SSB 2182 kHz
Press/Hold the transmit button
Also give:

Vessel Name and/or Description
Position and/or Location
Nature of Emergency
Number of People on Board

Release transmit button
Wait for 10 seconds – If no response Repeat "MAYDAY" Call.
Try other channels – frequencies if no response

False Distress Alerts

It is unlawful to intentionally transmit a false distress alert, or to unintentionally transmit a false distress alert without taking steps to cancel that alert.

Lesson 45: Damage Control

Damage Control

Damage control is based on the premise that the safety and life of a ship depends on watertight integrity. This discussion describes some emergency procedures that can be used in the event the ship's hull has been punctured and watertight integrity has been lost. The procedures described are emergency measures taken by the damage control team to maintain watertight integrity of the ship in the event of accident, collision, or grounding.

Damage Control Program:

If a ship’s hull is punctured, watertight integrity is lost. If enough water is allowed to enter the hull and is uncontrolled, the ship will sink. There is no such thing as a "little leak". Any size leak is a cause for alarm. Through damage control, this "leak" may be either stopped or reduced to a point where the ship’s pumps can control any excess water.

Damage Control Team:

Along with other emergency duties (fire and liferaft), crew members are also assigned to an emergency squad or damage control team. This team may consist of the master and crew. There should be sufficient skills among the team members to perform the tasks required in an emergency.

In the event of fire, collision, grounding, or hostilities, one of the damage control team’s missions is to assist in maintaining the watertight integrity of the ship. Many vessels have been lost because no real effort was made to save them.

When plugging leaks, the ultimate aim is to stop the leak permanently. The amount of water entering a vessel through a hole varies directly with the area of the hole and with the square root of its depth. Realistically, if you can reduce the flow of water by more than 50 percent, it is a job well done. Also, the ship’s pumps should be able to handle whatever water is left. The values in the table below show how important it is to put some kind of plug into any hole right away.

Damage control also consists of either shoring up decks that are weakened or strengthening bulkheads between flooded compartments. Although all damage control work is temporary, it must be strong enough to allow the ship to make it back to port safely.